Cell balancing is the process of equalizing the voltages and state of charge among the cells. That is not only good for the battery pack’s performance but also for optimal life cycles.
Choosing good quality lithium battery, proper use and storage will ensure safety and prolong cycle life.
Polinovel various lithium iron phosphate battery series features and differences for wide application.
If you’re considering an upgrade to lithium, learn about the pros and cons of each type of battery before choosing which type is right for your applications.
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries come in a single package with a lot of power and value. This chemistry of lithium
Best lithium ion battery: The Ultimate Guide All information you’re looking for about the best lithium iron phosphate battery is right here. Whether you want to know the dealership, how to be a dealership, or pricing&cost, your answer is right here. Read this guide to learn how to make importing lithium ion batteries and simple.
- Features to consider when choosing the lithium-ion battery
- Main parts of lithium ion battery
- Lithium-ion Battery Compared to Lead-acid
- Best Material for Manufacturing Lithium-ion Battery
- Limitations of Lithium-ion Battery.
- The Manufacturing Process of a Lithium-ion Battery
- How to Troubleshoot a Lithium-ion Battery?
- Factors Determining Lithium-ion Battery Price
- Safety Features of a Lithium-ion Battery
- The future of Lithium-ion Batteries
- How to Skyrocket business with a Lithium-ion Battery Dealership
- Quality Standard Specifications of a Lithium-ion Battery
- Benefits of Lithium-ion Battery Rechargeable Fully
- How to Conduct Factory Acceptance Test for Lithium-ion Battery?
Features to consider when choosing the lithium-ion battery
Today, life has become totally remote. Therefore, the use of batteries has also become necessary to keep our routine going. The demand for batteries is increasing day by day. Hence, there is every kind of battery available in the market. But we should choose very carefully considering the reliability and safety concerns. The lithium-ion battery is the recommended and most promising technology to chose for the batteries. Today, I have discussed some features of the lithium-ion battery that you should consider when choosing.
High power density: It contains a high energy storage capacity. Hence, suitable for mobiles, PCs, energy-efficient vehicles, electrical equipment, and much more.
Less maintenance required: Unlike other technical batteries, a Li-ion battery does not require periodic charging and disposal because it requires less maintenance.
Low-temperature storage: Li-ion batteries, when stored in cool places, become more efficient for performance.
Self-discharge: It is one of such batteries that do not need to have a current to get charged. Li-ion also has characteristics to be set by itself.
Durability and Reliability: The li-ion battery is reliable and suitable for many energy-efficient applications. It does not need to be changed frequently and lasts long.
Lithium-ion batteries are efficient in performance and service life. Therefore, its demand and use have increased over time. It is used for many electrical or energy-efficient applications. Before choosing it, you should consider its features like power density, maintenance, reliability, and service life.
Main parts of lithium-ion battery
Lithium ion, one of the worldwide used batteries was first produced in 1991 by Sony. Lithium ion batteries, nowadays have a potential range of use including their excellent performance in cars, airplanes, mobile phones, large-scale solar systems and in small households as an energy storing device.
A lithium ion battery is made of four main and essential components such as cathode, anode, electrolyte and salt bridge or separator. These parts are the basics of a lithium ion battery and the battery may not function as an energy source without any of these four parts.
Is made of lithium and is known as a negative node or negative terminal. This electrode absorbs electrons from the external circuit and is the source of lithium ions. Determination of the capacity and voltage of a battery relates to the cathode.
Anode is referred to as the positive node or positive terminal. This electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit and is the storing unit of every type of lithium ion battery. As a result, anode is oxidized (loses electrons) during the discharge of the battery. And cathode is oxidized during the charging reaction of the battery.
Electrolytes are generally liquids such as water with dissolved salts, acids or alkaline that function as a conductor between anode and cathode inside the battery.
4) Salt bridge:
A salt bridge even referred to as a separator is a porous material used to separate the two electrolytes (anode and cathode), but yet to maintain them connected. So that the chemical reaction would not stop.
Lithium-ion Battery Compared to Lead-acid
Energy is becoming the commodity of almost every human’s life now a day. Every individual is looking for an effective, efficient, and economic device to facilitate their needs in energy-related appliances. Thus storing energy can be considered the most wanted and significant phenomenon in an energy system.
Battery, as an electrical storage medium, is the most important and delicate part of every type of solar energy system, RV, EV, E-bike, forklift, and others. While searching for an energy storage battery used in all the systems mentioned above, two of the most common battery chemistry types are lithium-ion and lead-acid. The electrode part of a lithium-ion battery is made of metal lithium, while a lead-acid is made of metal lead. In this short article, we will explain, how is a lithium-ion battery compared to lead-acid.
Lithium-ion or lead-acid battery, which one to purchase?
Normally, differences come in performance and cost from the difference in the chemistry of batteries. However, both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries can be considered as perfect energy storage devices, here is how they stack up when compared head to head.
If you are looking for a battery at a lower price, then a lead-acid battery can simply be your choice. Purchasing and installing a lithium-ion battery system can be numerous times more expensive than a similarly-sized lead-acid battery system. despite, the higher purchasing and installation cost of a lithium-ion battery, the life cycle of a lithium-ion battery dominates over several types of batteries used in any energy storing system.
Capacity is a measure of stored charge or energy within a battery. In addition, capacity is one of the most significant factors for selecting a battery. Normally, batteries with higher capacity rates are preferable. however, they may have a high cost. A lithium-ion battery is basically of high capacity compared to a lead-acid battery, occupying the same physical size. It means that more charge may be stored in a lithium-ion battery and consequently, can be used for longer periods of time, draining energy from.
Normally, a lithium-ion battery comes with three cells each of 2.6 Ah, and combined in parallel to produce 7.8Ah, or ten 2.6Ah cells to produce 26Ah. But you can even get numerous cells of high Ah rating to fulfill your requirements of high capacity demand.
Depth of discharge
The factor, depth of discharge means what percentage of the stored energy can you drain safely after charging it completely. For example, if a battery has 60% of the depth of discharge rating, then it means that you should drain or use 60 percent of its stored energy, or it will severely be damaging for the life of the battery if used after the depth of discharge limit is reached.
Generally, a lithium-ion battery comes with %85 of the depth of discharge. On the other hand, a lead-acid battery does not have a depth of discharge of more than %50. Indicating that a lithium-ion battery is suitable and efficient enough for cases where powering loads and draining energy for long periods of time is wanted.
The efficiency of a battery means how much energy stored in the battery is actually available for powering loads and how much is lost inside the battery. The lithium-ion battery has a leading efficacy than a lead-acid one. The 95 or more than 95 percent of efficiency for lithium-ion batteries can be considered so reliable, in contrast to the 80-85 percent efficiency of a lead-acid battery.
Life cycle or lifespan
One charging and discharging operation of a battery are referred to as one cycle of the battery. A battery cannot be used infinite times of charge-discharge cycles. Due to each charge-discharge cycle, the capacity of a battery decreases slightly. Therefore, choosing a perfect number of charge-discharge cycle batteries is a common desire of any buyer.
The number of life cycles of any battery may vary from study to study and from type to type. But the lithium-ion battery can last several times of life cycles compared to a lead-acid battery. As one can note a lithium-ion battery can complete 300-500 life cycles comfortably. Which is a high rate compared to the 50-100 life cycles of a lead-acid battery.
Getting to understand all of the above explanations, you can now decide whether the type of these two batteries is of your choice. But to be clever, one can easily decide that lithium-ion battery is the most effective, efficient, capacitive and lasting much time in contrast to the lead-acid battery. However, in cases where battery energy is not of frequent use, a lead-acid battery may be a better decision. By doing this, you can avoid many of the drawbacks of a lead-acid battery and save your budget instead of investing it in a high-cost lithium-ion battery.
Best Material for Manufacturing Lithium-ion Battery
There are many choices for selecting the best materials for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery. And deciding whether materials can be the most perfect choice, depends on the cost, efficiency, charge storing capacity, safety and lifespan of the materials. So the manufacturer then can pick up the best material among all different alternatives to have the best aggregation of normally used materials in a lithium-ion battery.
But before we enter the main subject, the best material for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery, it’s quite important to have a brief review of the main parts of a lithium-ion battery.
Anode: Anode is referred to as the positive node or positive terminal. This electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit and is the charge storing unit of every type of lithium-ion battery. As a result, the anode is oxidized (loses electrons) during the discharge of the battery.
Cathode: cathode is known as a negative node or negative terminal. This electrode absorbs electrons from the external circuit and is the source of lithium ions.
Electrolytes: Electrolytes are generally liquids such as water with dissolved salts, acids or alkalis that function as a conductor between anode and cathode inside the battery.
Salt bridge: A salt bridge or a separator is porous material used to separate the two electrodes (anode and cathode), but yet to maintain them connected. So that the chemical reaction would not stop.
Now having a general idea about all the parts of a lithium-ion battery, let’s log in to the main article which is, indicating the perfect material for producing a lithium-ion battery.
Anode Best Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
There is a range of materials used to manufacture the anode of a lithium-ion battery such as lithium, graphite, lithium-alloying materials, intermetallic, and silicon. Lithium can be simply pointed out as a perfect anode material but can cause problems with cyclic behavior. Graphite anodes can be considered as the most utilized anodic material since it has a very low price and is available enough. However, its poor theoretical capacity (372mAh/g) is of special concern. Alloy and intermetallic anodes however have high capacities, but can have mighty volume change that results in a less lifespan.
Cathode Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
Generally used materials as the cathode part of a lithium-ion battery are, the oxides of lithium-metal (such as LiCoO2, LiMnO4), vanadium oxides, olivine, and rechargeable lithium oxides. Lithium-metal oxides encompassing cobalt and nickel are the most common selected materials but due to the scarce amount of cobalt in nature and its toxic characteristic, it may have some drawbacks. Manganese offers a low-cost alternative with a high thermal threshold but has some limited cycling behaviors. Vanadium oxides show large capacity and the best kinetics. However, due to lithium insertion and extraction, it may have cyclic limitations.
Electrolyte Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
Selecting an adequate electrolyte material becomes very significant, due to the matter that it should be able to withstand the battery’s existing voltage and high temperatures. Well-known electrolyte materials can be categorized as liquid, polymer and solid-state electrolytes. Liquid electrolytes are generally organic and solvent-based. Flammability is their most common consideration. Polymer electrolytes are usually mixed in composites with ceramic nanoparticles, causing higher conductivity. Solid electrolytes are lithium-ion crystals and ceramic glasses. their exclusive criterion is that they eliminate the need for separators and the risk of thermal runaway.
Separator Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
Separators are either considered to be synthesized in sheets and assembled with electrodes, or deposited onto one electrode. For liquid electrolyte materials, the separator can be a foam material that is soaked with electrolytes and holds in place. However, separators for solid and some polymer electrolytes are not required.
During the above article, a range of lithium-ion battery materials was discussed and their well-known characteristics were analyzed briefly.
- The most perfect material for the anode part of a lithium-ion battery can be suggested as graphite powder, due to the fact, that graphite anodes can overcome the voltage requirements of the generally used cathode, are economic, light and may not result in any aging troubles relative to other anode materials.
- To get the best cathode material, normally the mixture of cobalt, nickel and manganese or lithium cobalt oxides are often used to combine the best properties and to meet all requirements.
- Ionic liquid-based electrolytes can simply be suggested by many manufacturers for a lithium-ion battery as the most efficient, reliable and safe electrolytes. However, Solid electrolytes may also be considered, since they reduce the separator cost of the battery.
- Polyethylene and polypropylene are the most commonly used separator materials, which present high performance and excellent safety considerations.
Limitations of Lithium-ion Battery
Lithium-ion, the fastest-growing battery chemistry, is of special interest for almost every energy consumer. Its high energy density, high depth of discharge, perfect cell voltage (3.6v), low maintenance, (approximately half self-discharge rate compared to all other batteries), and excellent life cycle, are all a lithium-ion battery exclusive and fantastic specifications, that makes lithium-ion battery the most sufficient and practical technology in battery manufacturing market.
despite all its interesting and advantageous characteristics, a lithium-ion battery does gain some limitations and drawbacks. Which can sometimes be of special concern for the users. below are some of the limitations and disadvantages of a lithium-ion battery.
Requires an Extra Protection Circuit
A protection circuit is generally required for each pack to maintain safe operation during its charge and discharge period. The main task of a protection circuit is to safeguard the battery from reaching its peak voltage during the charging process, and from dropping to a too low voltage during the discharging process. And by doing this, the cell temperature is also controlled to a state with no hazard of maximum temperature state.
Aging is another frequent concern of a lithium-ion battery. However, many of the lithium-ion battery manufacturers do not reveal a complete enough explanation of this matter, but one can easily notice that a lithium-ion battery does lose its efficiency after 2-3 years. Thus if stored in a cool place and used at a regular 40% depth of discharge, the battery can even reduce its aging effect. Consequently, a matter of profit is that this is still a healthy life cycle in contrast to other battery chemistries.
High Purchasing Cost
High purchasing cost of a lithium-ion battery is another barrier toward its validity in many RV, EV, fishing boat, E-bike and solar energy storage systems. A lithium-ion battery costs 40% higher than a nickel-cadmium battery, hundreds or even thousands of dollars high than lead-acid ($121/kwh*100*6 for a lead-acid battery and $605/kwh*50*1, initial cost for a lithium-ion battery). In addition, this can be the case of every battery cost while compared to the lithium-ion battery. However, the payback period of lithium-ion batteries can be cost-effective compared to almost any type of batter technology.
Danger of Explosion
Lithium-ion battery, which is rapidly making their place in transportation and energy storage systems worldwide, can create some safety concerns such as fire and explosion hazards. The lithium-ion cells can undergo the thermal runaway in some events and can result in an explosion. This explosion may cause by the release of flammable gases inside the confined battery cells and can damage the whole battery or even a valuable object or human being near it. It is important to notice that these gases can result from chemical reactions inside the cell, from over-state of charge, and other parameters.
The Manufacturing Process of a Lithium-ion Battery
A lithium-ion battery is manufactured through different processes and of many materials. And they can be categorized into three steps such as electrode manufacturing, cell assembly and cell finishing. One of its most significant parts anode is made of lithium cobalt oxide (having extremely high cycling properties at high voltages), a crystalized carbon as the cathode and organic solvent, optimized for the specialty carbon as the electrolyte. But the procedures and processes steps for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery can be summarized as follows.
For producing electrodes of a lithium-ion battery, the manufacturers proceed through a number of processes and steps. Thus Some of lasting much time and some pass rapidly. The complete manufacturing process is as follows.
- Cast a slurry onto a metallic current collector, containing some active material, conductive carbon and a binder.
- the binder generally polyvinylidene fluoride, is used to pre-dissolve in the solvent part of the electrolytes. The solvent can usually be N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
- The mixing process continues for a while and during the process, the binder flows around and coat the active material and carbon particles.
- The resulting slurry is then cast onto the current collector and after drying it, the process ends. Hence, the drying process may take a long period of time, assisted with an extraordinary evaporating system. It can take 12-24 hours at 120° C for the electrodes to dry completely.
The electrode of a lithium-ion battery can also be manufactured by spray painting techniques. During the spray painting technique, some specific NMP based paints are used to spray each component of electrode onto the desired surface. The spray painting technique still requires an evaporating system to dry the electrodes at higher temperatures.
Filling electrolytes falls in the cell assembly step of the battery manufacturing process. Electrolytes, most commonly of three types are liquid, polymer and solid-state electrolytes. In which, every type with the materials used has particular advantages and limitations. But whether the type of electrolyte is chosen can be filled into the battery after the cathode-anode step is done.
- The electrolytes are filled into the battery after the electrode is manufactured.
- While filling the electrolyte into the battery cell, a high-precision dosing needle is used to cast it into the battery cell.
- The electrolytes should be filled in a manner that can wet the electrodes and separator. Which can be one of the most gradual step in battery production.
All the other parts such as insulators, seals and safety devices attachment fall into the battery finishing step, which is carried out after the two crucial steps and the battery is charged fully for testing.
How to Troubleshoot a Lithium-ion Battery?
How to troubleshoot or maintain a lithium-ion battery, is a frequently asked question by many consumers. Furthermore, this is a general concern with all types of battery technologies. Hence, any charge storing technology or battery is approximately the highest costed portion of any electrical device.
Thus lithium-ion battery is leading battery chemistry compared to all other batteries in its many behaviors. It has a higher capacity and higher cell voltage (2.9v-4.2v). it shows less self-discharge and is environmentally friendly as well as having excellent lifespan. But as with every type of battery, the lithium-ion needs some maintenance and troubleshooting which is being discussed in the following article.
What If the Battery Reduces Its Voltage?
If the voltage of a lithium-ion battery cell is getting reduced (below 2v), then care must be taken to repair it or it can affect battery life. Which can cause the result of High self-discharge or uneven current.
Solution: charging the battery by using the charger directly with over-voltage protection.
If the Battery has High Internal Resistance
The internal resistance of a lithium-ion battery will increase highly 1. if it detects equipment differences. 2. if stored for a long time, would also result in excessive capacity loss and increase the internal resistance of the battery. 3. Or it can be the reason for abnormal heating during its manufacturing process (spot welding or other).
Solution: the trouble can be shot by testing it via the AC bridge method for case 1, having a charge and discharge activation for case 2, and paying extremely high concentration to welding procedure by manufacturers for case 3.
Expansion of Lithium-ion Battery
Sometimes, the lithium-ion battery can naturally expand if overcharged. The overcharging phenomenon normally causes the electrolytes of the battery to decompose, increase internal pressure and consequently reach it to an expansion. In addition, the battery can also be expanded during its manufacturing process.
Solution: the lithium-ion expansion resulting from overcharging can be avoided by a controlled charging mechanism. Particularly the battery should not be charged more than 12 hours at a time. And the manufacturers are strictly required to control the entire battery production process to prevent any short circuits and overheating.
If the Battery Reduces Lifespan
Sometimes, lithium-ion battery does not last for the indicated life cycle and shows a capacity reduction heavily. That can be due to high charging and discharging or lack of the prescribed temperature while charging or discharging.
Solution: An important factor in charging a battery is not to charge it up to 100% which can cause a severe disorder of battery voltage and energy-saving capacity. Instead, an 85% charging limit is suggested by almost all manufacturers. Furthermore, high discharge can also result in, potential capacity losses for a lithium-ion battery. it is predicted that 5-10 shallow discharge cycles are equal to one full discharge. In addition, obeying the C rating for charge-discharge cycles is more effective toward safe battery function
Factors Determining Lithium-ion Battery Price
Lithium-ion is a kind of rechargeable battery in which lithium-ion moves from the cathode (negative electrode) to anode (positive electrode) during discharge of the battery and vice versa while charging. A lithium-ion battery has potential application in areas such as a range of solar energy systems, EV, E-bike, forklift, RV, and other large and small scale systems.
Hence it’s one of the high-priced batteries used worldwide. As a general evaluation, a lithium-ion battery for an electric vehicle can cost between $7000-$20000, making it by far the most expensive item of the entire vehicle cost. However, its cost has come down 80-85 percent in the last decade and will continue to an, even more, low ($60/kWh) price in the future due to technology improvements.
But the main issue is that what are the common factors determining lithium-ion battery price? What are high-cost materials and low-cost materials? And finally, the most essential factors to whom the whole price of the battery refers. This short article could be subjected to those factors that determine the lithium-ion battery price.
Raw Material Price
Raw materials are needed for a lithium-ion battery and their cost can differ roughly upon the size, capacity and power of the battery. For instance, a most common cylindrical cell, the so-called 18650 cell has 18 mm width, 65 mm length and a total mass of about 40 g, and a capacity of approximately 1.35 Ah. And the raw materials price for this lithium-ion battery cell is calculated to be $1.28/cell.
As the energy density of a lithium-ion battery gets increases, the relative mass or size and materials required also continue to increase following the mass, materials, and cost path of a simple 18650 cell. For example, if the 40 g mass 18650 cell raw materials cost $1.28 to produce, then the 325 g mass and 10Ah capacity battery materials will cost $1.28*10/1.35, and 3430 g and 100Ah battery raw materials will cost $1.28*100/1.35 to produce, and so on.
Raw Materials Processing Price
The processing cost of raw materials usually varies potentially with different types of materials. and it’s very often a sophisticated job to calculate separately with fine accuracy. therefore, it’s a common practice to include all of them with the materials price.
Manufacturing and Labor Price
While manufacturing a lithium-ion battery, it has to pass through a range of complicated processes which include: mixing and coating, slitting, cutting, winding, tab welding, automated assembly as well as testing and packaging. A total number of 76-104 workers would be required, working in two shifts to produce 100,000 cells 18650 units. consequently, the estimated cost of labor and overhead costs can be expected to be $0.42 based on a 18650 cell.
Now after adding up all the raw materials expenses and manufacturing and labor expenses, the total price of a lithium-ion battery could be pointed out as $1.70/18650 cell. From this calculation, one can find out the cost of several numbers of high capacity batteries for EV, E-bike, forklift, RV, a solar energy system and a range of other large and small scale systems.
Safety Features of a Lithium-ion Battery
The lithium-ion battery that was firstly introduced by Sony in 1991, has some mighty safety risks. its high energy density, long life cycle, high depth of discharge rate, and many other advantages are still the most successful factors of any battery technology available today (almost 2 billion lithium-ion batteries are manufactured annually). But one should remind himself of the recall of the early rechargeable metallic lithium battery Which was due to the infliction of a man’s face by releasing hot gases.
From that time, efforts and struggles were accelerated in order to execute safety concerns in lithium battery technology. The research resulted from the idea of replacing the metallic lithium battery with a lithium-ion battery which is relatively safe. But still, there may be safety features of a lithium-ion battery such as the danger of explosion and/or fire. And that can be due to improper use, storage, charge, and other factors. Which can be summarized as below.
- Physical collision with earth or other objects such as dropping and crushing can cause the lithium-ion battery to be damaged severely.
- Too high temperatures can also cause to fail or even explode a lithium-ion battery. Especially when it exceeds 130° F or more.
- If the charging temperature inside a lithium-ion battery or its environment is freezing (32° F), then the battery could also be damaged. In addition, below freezing point charge process leads to permanent lithium build up on the anode (a reason for battery failure)
- The battery should be charged and discharged following the manufacturer’s instructions and C rating. For instance, if a lithium-ion battery has a C- rating of 10, then it’s recommended to charge and discharge in 10 hours, or it will cause the battery to fail if charged or discharged in less than this time.
- In some cases, the chemical reactions in the electrolytes and electrodes of the battery can produce gases of by-products that can increase the pressure of the cell. The gas pressure continues to increase to a point where the by-products leak out and even in some cases can cause to ignite.
How to Obey all Safety Factors of a Lithium-ion Battery to Avoid Its Dangers?
- Before using a lithium-ion battery, try to confirm that the battery itself, charger, and all equipment are tested in accordance with an appropriate test standard.
- Be sure to obey all the instructions for use, charging, and maintenance is given by the manufacturer.
- If there is a need of replacing the current electronic devices from the battery and connecting other ones, ensure that they are specifically designed and are capable of the battery.
- Remove all the connected devices and batteries from the charger if charged fully.
- Remember Always to store the lithium-ion battery in a dry and cool location and far from heaters and other high-temperature appliances.
- Stay safe from many hazards of a lithium-ion battery by preventing the battery from impacting and damaging. A good way for this is, to inspect the batteries from cracking, hissing, leaking, and other damaging signs.
- Stay safe by removing a damaged battery from the service and keeping it in a secure location until disposing of it by local regulations.
The future of Lithium-ion Batteries
The world is related to energy. Energy is the commodity everyone needs for enhancing daily life and facilitating day-to-day problems. And as the demand for energy gets increased, the need of cultivating more energy plants and storing technologies rises too. The leading battery technology today is lithium-ion battery technology. Since people look forward to seeing the coming aspects and benefits of lithium-ion batteries and what will be the future of the lithium-ion battery.
Cost of Lithium-ion Battery in Future
One of the few limits of a lithium-ion battery is its high cost. A lithium-ion battery costs 40% higher than a nickel-cadmium battery, hundreds or even thousands of dollars high than a lead-acid. Using a lithium-ion battery in an electric vehicle will cost about $7000-20000, hence would be the most expensive part of an electrical vehicle. But researchers indicate 80-85% come down in its price in the last decade and will proceed to reduce the high purchasing cost until it gets to an even more affordable one.
Once there was a time when metallic lithium batteries were used. one should remind himself of the recall of the early rechargeable metallic lithium battery Which was due to the infliction of a man’s face by releasing hot gases. Now energy storage and release is provided by the movement of lithium ions from the positive to the negative electrode via the electrolytes. In addition to this innovation in lithium-ion battery components, there could be several types of other innovations in its manufacturing materials and compound. And with these new innovative compounds, lithium-ion battery technology is expected to reach a high energy limit in the future. Furthermore, they can reduce the safety hazards and high cost of the battery in a significant amount.
the lithium battery has gone through a long journey in the last few decades. Starting its journey firstly with metallic lithium battery proceeding by lithium-ion with the help of using lithium ions as the charge transferring medium. executing many innovative and improving changes in its manufacturing components and chemical compounds since 1991 when the first lithium battery with lithium ions electrodes was introduced, led to an even acceptable and advantageous battery used ever. There are hard attempts for manufacturing a new generation of advanced lithium-ion batteries in the future, and that will come into practice before we have the first generation of solid-state batteries. A new generation of the current lithium-ion batteries will have some amazing and special impacts on all types of energy storage systems and will be a unique approach toward having safety, high energy, and high power in the renewable energy sector. In addition, acquiring a cleaner environment with no carbon emission will be the most expected and pleasing aspect when the lithium-ion battery with its new generation is used in transportation and productivity systems.
How to Skyrocket business with a Lithium-ion Battery Dealership
Lithium-ion batteries are the most capacitive, have longer life cycles, and are the only optimum solution for high-performance products. In addition, one can easily notice the weight of a traditional lead-acid battery which is just as potentially high as the weight of a lithium-ion battery with its engineered vehicle.
So as a matter of fact, it’s normally not a so complicated job to boost and skyrocket your business via such a popular and successful battery technology. But as everyone knows making a loyal following of customers and keeping the improved capacity of your product may always need special consideration of the manufacturers.
While trying to increase your battery sales, many challenges cone may be waiting for you toward your success in this way. It is a matter of growing your business to reach a wider range of audiences as well as well keeping your previous customers come back and back. Therefore, the significant factor in order to execute these two matters, you need to bring any major technology changes to your products by applying research and market analysis. Furthermore, being in touch with your clients to know what they expect from your products, could also be a key component of your promotion. But how to really bring all these factors into action and how to skyrocket business with a lithium-ion battery dealership?
Make Your Products Trustful
providing trusted and well-performing batteries to the market can help your lithium-ion battery dealership leave special impacts in customers’ hearts. you will always be their favorite. On the contrary, if your lithium-ion battery fails prematurely, the customers are highly expected not to trust you anymore. They may even blame your design instead of the failing battery.
Obey All Regulations
There are many rules, specifications, standards (such as safety standards, performance standards, and testing standards), and other regulations for a lithium-ion battery business. So one is essentially wanted to complete all the regulations and specifications to prove that he/she has the ability. And by performing all these materials, he/she will be able to improve the products and therefore can skyrocket his business with lithium-ion batteries.
Be Careful with Competition and Selecting Location
it will be pretty important for a lithium-ion battery business owner to firstly select a fine location or tradeable area for the business and also to bring improvements in his/her productions so that the business will come up with all the available challenges and competitions. Furthermore, hard seeking and research must be done in order to bring improvements and new innovations in the battery technology and manufacturing process as well as finding a location in any which is easy to access and is a central place in the city.
Quality Standard Specifications of a Lithium-ion Battery
A lithium-ion battery has some quality standards and specifications, which have to be summarized and noticed well. This lithium-ion battery technology has been used for lighting homes, driving EVs, E-bike, running laptops, mobile phones as well as benefiting numerous other processes and requirements.
Due to its lightweight and high capacity or energy density, it has to gain the tendency of many consumers around the world. A lithium-ion battery has four main components, structuring and shaping the battery. The component anode produces charge during the chagrin cycle and gives it to the external circuit during the discharge cycle, the component cathode, gaining ions during discharge and vice versa while charging. The electrolyte is a medium of connecting the cathode and anode physically, and a separator being playing the role of a barrier between anode and cathode.
Nominal Capacity and Maximum Capacity
When a battery is fully charged and then used to drain the entire energy from it at a specific constant current rate, the amount of energy withdrawn from the battery is called the nominal capacity. Normally the amount of nominal capacity and voltage relates to the chemical reaction of the battery. For instance, if a battery of 500Ah energy density has 24v voltage, then its overall nominal capacity would be 500Ah*24v = 12,000 Wh or 12kWh. The nominal capacity can usually be found out with the help of the C- a rate of the battery. It’s quite significant to remember that only the energy in the amount of depth of discharge can be drained from all the nominal capacity of the battery in order to serve the battery safely.
The maximum capacity of a battery is the measure that shows the highest capacity of a battery when it was new and was not still used. Since the battery loses its capacity with time and may lose up to 20% of its original capacity with 500 cycles. For example, if a lithium-ion battery has 100Ah capacity and loses 10% of its original capacity after 250 cycles, then it’s said that the maximum capacity of the battery is 100Ah, however, the nominal capacity after 250 cycles is now 90Ah.
Some general standards of a lithium-ion battery
- IEC 61960- performance standard: This is an international Electro-Technical Commission (IEC) standard. This indicates that the battery in your hands is a lithium-ion battery of alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes and is commonly used for portable applications.
- IEC 62133-2:2017- safety standard: This standard also relates to the international Electro-Technical Commission, which indicates that the battery contains alkaline and other non-acid electrolytes and is usable for portable appliances.
- IEC 61959:2004- Testing standard: This standard is for secondary cells and batteries that contain electrolytes of alkalis and other non-acid liquids.
- UN-1642, 5thEdition- Safety Standard: This standard is specially used for the safety standards of lithium-ion batteries.
- UL-95040,2ndEdition-Safety standard: This standard is commonly used for energy storage systems and equipment by ANSI/CAN/UL.
- UL-9540A, 4thEdition-Testing standard: This standard is particularly applied for testing methods of evaluating thermal runaway fire propagation in battery energy storage systems.
- UL-1974, 1stEdition-Testing standard: ANSI/CAN/UL standard for evaluation for repurposing batteries.
Benefits of Lithium-ion Battery Rechargeable Fully
One can easily find some out of the many advantages and benefits of a lithium-ion battery. Despite its only drawback, the high cost, lithium-ion battery powers thousands or hundreds of thousands of appliances and devices worldwide. But researches show a big fall in lithium-ion battery price in the last few years and will continue to a more affordable cost in coming decades. People use lithium-ion batteries in EV, E-bikes, RV, fishing boats, solar energy storing systems, and even for lightning homes in some countries where there is a shortage of other electricity sources. In addition, we will mention and describe some of the lithium-ion batteries’ pros and benefits with a little more explanation.
It Has the Longest Lifespan
As mentioned before the only drawback of a lithium-ion battery is its high cost. But considering its long life cycle, one may discover that a lithium-ion battery can accomplish your energy needs for several times longer periods than a lead-acid or nickel-cadmium battery. Hence without any exaggeration, it can be said that some large-capacity lithium-ion batteries can last for more than 8 years. In this case, your investments in storing energy would be reduced in an amount and will definitely not let you return to the battery market for a new purchase.
Requires Less Maintenance
Unlike flooded batteries that need to be flooded in water and then monitored continuously, a lithium-ion battery does need to be flooded nor monitored. Therefore, an extra controlling system and monitoring group are not warned for an extra amount of budget. In a conclusion, using a lithium-ion battery will reduce your investments for managing a controlling system and monitoring group in order to safely maintain the battery.
Negligible Environment Impacts
While using a lithium-ion battery in EV, E-bikes, E Fishing boats, and other devices and means, a lithium-ion battery can be considered as completely eco-friendly. It will serve several times more beneficial than fossil fuel alternatives. In addition, using a lithium-ion battery in all types of vehicles will significantly reduce greenhouse effects that result from the emission of carbon dye oxide and other gases. Hence it has the lowest level of toxic heavy metals.
Weighs Less but Works More
When we say that a lithium-ion battery normally comes with high energy density, it does not mean that it will be as heavy as its capacity. Instead, it’s easily portable, much smaller, and lighter than many other batteries. For instance, a typical 51Ah lithium-ion battery weighs 6-7kg which is distinctly the same weight as a 24Ah lead-acid battery has.
High Energy Density
One of the most significant reasons for more consumers to choose a lithium-ion battery is that with all its low weight and small mass characteristics, a lithium-ion battery can store plenty amount of energy relative to other bigger batteries. A lithium-ion battery may contain 100-265Wh/kg energy density which is the highest ever of all battery technology.
Self-discharge is a natural phenomenon with all types of battery technologies which is the reduction of battery’s capacity with time due to chemical reactions inside the battery. Then it’s not important whether the battery powers a load or not being used. self-discharge of a lithium-ion battery can reach a peak rate of 5% in its first 24 hours after being charged fully. And may then reach 1-2% per month. Thus it can be considered as negligible compared to a nickel-based battery that loses 10-15 capacity after charge as well as per month basis.
How to Conduct Factory Acceptance Test for Lithium-ion Battery
Lithium-ion battery passes through many several types of tests while manufacturing in a factory. the high demand for batteries and people’s dependency on them has risen all the considerations of creating some specific testing methods. The testing methods can be required to assure the capacity loss, charge-discharge testing for monitoring the charging and discharging process of the battery, high & low-temperature testing for indicating the temperature limits of the battery while charging or discharging, aging testing, and others. Below are some of the methods that show how to conduct a factory acceptance test for lithium-ion batteries. But it can be noted that all these lithium-ion battery testing systems relate to Polinovel factory of lithium-ion batteries.
For testing the capacity of a lithium-ion battery, the Polinovel factory uses the method of dividing the capacity of the battery. Then getting a consistent capacity will mean that this battery refers to the same group, or if it results in an inconsistent capacity, then it will be subjected to another group.
Charge-discharge testing normally depends on some specific requirements related to the rate and charging and discharging process of each cell. Generally, customers will be required to complete a few cycles within a selected time. (normally two days)
High and Low-Temperature Testing
The increase and decrease of temperature can directly affect a lithium-ion battery. High and low-temperature testing can take one day to be done.
About Lithium-ion Battery
In the Modern Era, the revolution within technology has provided various facilities to its user. The revolution of technology has provided a more precise, effective, and efficient mechanism to deal with daily life problems. This revolution is not for just one specific field but it hit every field of today’s life. We are experiencing a great change in the field of electronics and electrical technology. Technology is changing day by day as well as the lifestyle of people.
Over the past decade, prices for solar panels and wind farms have reached very low prices, leading to hundreds of Giga-Watts worth of new renewable energy generation. There are various ways that can be adapted to store power or energy at an extremely huge rate. The demand for energy is increasing as life progress. The storage of energy in a huge volume is a great challenge faced by the industries. We need a good way to store energy for the future to face the challenges of the future and to deal with the rising technology.
For this purpose, the main option we have right now is Lithium Ion Batteries. Lithium ion batteries are used in many more products like Tesla’s home batteries, the Power wall, and utility-scale systems, the Powerpack. Though the price of lithium-ion is dropping according to experts, it will remain too expensive for grid-scale applications. In an interview with William Chueh, the Associate Professor at Stanford University, to get a battery for grid systems, there is a need for cost reduction from 10 to 20 times.
At present, lithium-ion cannot store more than four hours’ worth of energy. Different entrepreneurs experimenting to make enhance and improve the energy capacity of lithium ion batteries. To compete with fossil fuels, there is a need to figure out a more productive way to store energy resources.
From 2000 to 2018, installed wind power grew from 17000 megawatts to over 563000 megawatts. Moreover, Solar power grew from a mere 1250 megawatts to 485000 megawatts. In contrast to all that, solar P.V is expecting and making efforts to increase 50% more in the next five years.
Basically, the market is ripe for competition. There are hundreds of companies working on scaling up and manufacturing new battery technology. Lithium ion has done remarkable things for technology Whenever we use an electronic device powered by a battery source, there is a chemical reaction. Inside a battery, there is a chemical reaction that is continued to happen.
With this chemical reaction, the batteries when removed make the machine completely dead which means that without a chemical reaction, there is no way to get the benefit of it and hence it becomes completely useless. When talking about lithium ion batteries, there are several questions that arise in our minds like what is the difference between lithium ion batteries? How do these batteries work? What are the advantages of lithium ion batteries over the simple or general battery?
Battery, A Power Source
All batteries have a positive terminal and negative terminal with external extension that is used to supply power to the electrical or portable devices. The flow of electrons in the battery enables it to deliver power so that the electrical device could be run or could be made executable. In the lithium ion battery, the electron comes from the element lithium. At the negative terminal (scientifically called Anode), lithium is stored between the layers of carbon graphite, similar to graphite in the lead pencil. Graphite is a nifty crystal structure with layered planes that allows it to be squeezed between the layers.
This position or term regarding lithium is called intercalation. The function of graphite is to provide storage space to lithium items. On the availability of a path to travel from the positive terminal (cathode) to the negative terminal (anode), the electrons separate from the lithium and start moving following the available route. Simultaneously, lithium leaves the graphite and becomes positively (+ve) charged. This state of lithium is now known as Lithium Ion.
So, in the same way, when thousands of lithium atoms leave the graphite, they become positively charged so the flow of electrons begins. The electrolyte provides the way for the lithium ions to make their way to cobalt (the other side, acting as the cathode).
Lithium-ion Battery Demand Globally
According to data from Benchmark’s lithium ion battery database, the following image shows the projection on demand of lithium all over the world from 2016 to 2030.
Figure 1: Lithium Demand Projection world-wide
Researches show that the demand for the lithium-ion battery has dramatically increased exponentially over the last 10 years all over the world and especially in Europe. This particularly includes the demand for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles and energy storing systems. In addition, many projections and experts indicate the demand for lithium-ion batteries to reach an unexpected amount of 9300 gigawatt-hours by 2030, while it was just 0.5 gigawatt-hours in 2010.
Lithium-ion Battery Demand in Europe
European countries are of course the most energy-consuming zone in the globe. The main energy-consuming domains are factories, electric vehicles, and energy-storing systems. And as one can easily notice that the lithium-ion battery is the most preferred choice for any of the above domains and areas. Therefore, lithium-ion battery is the tremendously manufactured, supplied, and used battery in Europe.
As the electrical vehicles and other product’s fleet is increased globally, the sales in Europe, of new electric cars are also enhanced up to 15%. This increase in the sale of electric cars in Europe also boosts up the need for EU lithium ion batteries. As per the Action Economy plan of Europe to achieve a carbon-free environment, the demand for EU lithium ion batteries is reaching its peak. For achieving the E-Europe, a number of criteria like high power, long autonomy, cheap and long life with high power density are required and for that purpose, lithium ion batteries are the best choice.
That is the reason China is dominating its ion batteries production and hence Europe in its way to be the number one manufacturer of lithium ion batteries, adopting different plans and following a road-map towards the high-level production of EU lithium batteries. During 2019, the share of Europe in exporting lithium ion batteries is about 25% worldwide.
Maros Sefcovic, in a conference, said that the European Union is confident that by 2025, they are making its way to produce enough batteries that would be enough to provide power to electrical vehicles without importing. He further claimed that due to such production of the battery cells, six million electrical vehicles would be powered.
There is a need for big investments in the battery manufacturing industry to boost it to the level so that 13 million electrical vehicles could be on Europe’s roads. China produces about 80 percent of the world’s lithium ion batteries. Comparing to China, Europe’s battery industry grows faster. There are about 15 big-scaled battery factories under construction. There are standards Brussels going to propose for batteries’ carbon footprint (Reuters, 2020).
Marcos Service, Commission’s vise president chaired the 5th ministerial meeting of the European Battery Alliance was held on March 12, 2021, with the industrial stakeholders to cope with the strategies and advancements regarding batteries along with to cover the gaps in the battery value chain in Europe. There are two topics that are highly focused in the meeting & the first one to find better ways to fill the gaps in the European Union labor market and secondly to develop a more robust and integrated raw material primary and secondary supply chain (EBA and Alliance, 2021).
On February 19, 2021, Northvolt, A Swedish lithium ion battery manufacturer unfolds its idea to launch Europe’s largest factory in Poland for an energy storage solution that will be a remarkable success in the energy storage market. Europe, the second-biggest market, after China, is planning to increase its battery production rate to about 40.1 percent annually between 2020 and 2025 (Adams, 2021).
Lithium Ion Batteries Manufacturing Countries:
Due to high energy density, cheap and long life, lithium ion batteries are the most preferred choice over other power sources. Since 2015, the lithium ion batteries exports overall increased about 18.4%. Following are the largest manufacturer companies of lithium ion batteries:
Anco Macao Commercial Offshore Li (Macao)
Black & Decker Suzhou Precision (China)
Chervon Limited (Hong Kong)
Samsung SDI Co Ltd (South Korea)
Sanyo Electric Co Ltd (Japan)
Circular Economy Action Plan
European Commission has framed and passed the Circular Economy Action Plan to design a pathway for circular economy enabling the European Union to double the use rate for circular material, to reduce European Union’s carbon and material footprint for contributing to the economic market. One of the emerging waste streams in EU is electrical and electronic equipment. About less than 40 percent of the electronic waste is recycled in European Union’s countries.
The value of this equipment is lost when they are completely dumped rather than taking actions to repair them by updating or repairing their soft wares, by replacing the batteries, or by making appropriate modifications to make it useable again. According to the survey, 2 out of 3 would prefer to use the electronic devices for a longer period or the device becomes fully malfunction (Plan et al., 2015).
The resources for backing up the power supply and energy and power industry plays a vital in making the power future in terms of economy as well as in terms of when a state or country is seeking progress with the current revolution. In some contexts, the mobility of the future depends on the strategy developed and adopted to store the energy resources to a maximum level.
The European Union Commission is planning to announce a new regulatory framework for batteries. In accordance with the Battery Directives (EUR-Lex, 2006) and Battery Alliance. According to Eurostat, Hungary has recycled about 99.3 lead batteries in 2008 (Eurostat, 2020). According to end-on-vehicles (European Parliament and Council, 2000, p. 34), the commission is also planning to introduce new rules to promote circular business models for end-of-life treatment, for defining a strategy to improvise recycling methods.
Boris Johnson, British Prime Minister planning to entirely ban out the petrol and diesel-consuming vehicles by 2030 following a goal to make Great Britain carbon-free by 2050.
Talking about the global competition of EU industry in the LiB sector and the linked benefits, rely on the capability of the EU to assist the global markets.
According to JRC Science for policy report (Steen et al., 2017), Figure 2 shows the lithium ion batteries worldwide cell production capacity, which shows that putting aside the Tesla Panasonic company, there is a great contribution of Asian countries who are expanding the lithium cells production;
In the past, Europe in order to fulfill its lithium requirements was dependent on China. But in recent decades, because the European Union has formulated different plans and policies to show that they are moving in the direction of the world’s largest exporter of lithium-ion batteries, China has become the largest supplier of raw materials and cells for lithium batteries.
The main objective of the EU is on energy storage to enable the electric mobility technology more innovative and to achieve this objective, the growth of lithium ion battery industry is the main goal to be pursued. The EU Commission facing two major problems; the bulk investment especially from the private sector and the huge-scale EU labor market to develop a regulatory framework for batteries and battery value chain.