European Lithium-ion Battery News

European Lithium News

European Lithium-ion Battery News

European Lithium-ion Battery News

European Lithium-ion Battery News


About Lithium-ion Battery


In the Modern Era, the revolution within technology has provided various facilities to its user. The revolution of technology has provided a more precise, effective, and efficient mechanism to deal with daily life problems. This revolution is not for just one specific field but it hit every field of today’s life. We are experiencing a great change in the field of electronics and electrical technology. Technology is changing day by day as well as the lifestyle of people.


Over the past decade, prices for solar panels and wind farms have reached very low prices, leading to hundreds of Giga-Watts worth of new renewable energy generation. There are various ways that can be adapted to store power or energy at an extremely huge rate. The demand for energy is increasing as life progress. The storage of energy in a huge volume is a great challenge faced by the industries. We need a good way to store energy for the future to face the challenges of the future and to deal with the rising technology.


For this purpose, the main option we have right now is Lithium Ion Batteries. Lithium ion batteries are used in many more products like Tesla’s home batteries, the Power wall, and utility-scale systems, the Powerpack. Though the price of lithium-ion is dropping according to experts, it will remain too expensive for grid-scale applications. In an interview with William Chueh, the Associate Professor at Stanford University, to get a battery for grid systems, there is a need for cost reduction from 10 to 20 times.


At present, lithium-ion cannot store more than four hours’ worth of energy.  Different entrepreneurs experimenting to make enhance and improve the energy capacity of lithium ion batteries. To compete with fossil fuels, there is a need to figure out a more productive way to store energy resources.


European Lithium News

European Lithium News

From 2000 to 2018, installed wind power grew from 17000 megawatts to over 563000 megawatts. Moreover, Solar power grew from a mere 1250 megawatts to 485000 megawatts. In contrast to all that, solar P.V is expecting and making efforts to increase 50% more in the next five years.


Basically, the market is ripe for competition. There are hundreds of companies working on scaling up and manufacturing new battery technology. Lithium ion has done remarkable things for technology Whenever we use an electronic device powered by a battery source, there is a chemical reaction. Inside a battery, there is a chemical reaction that is continued to happen.


With this chemical reaction, the batteries when removed make the machine completely dead which means that without a chemical reaction, there is no way to get the benefit of it and hence it becomes completely useless. When talking about lithium ion batteries, there are several questions that arise in our minds like what is the difference between lithium ion batteries? How do these batteries work? What are the advantages of lithium ion batteries over the simple or general battery?


Battery, A Power Source


All batteries have a positive terminal and negative terminal with external extension that is used to supply power to the electrical or portable devices. The flow of electrons in the battery enables it to deliver power so that the electrical device could be run or could be made executable. In the lithium ion battery, the electron comes from the element lithium. At the negative terminal (scientifically called Anode), lithium is stored between the layers of carbon graphite, similar to graphite in the lead pencil. Graphite is a nifty crystal structure with layered planes that allows it to be squeezed between the layers.


This position or term regarding lithium is called intercalation. The function of graphite is to provide storage space to lithium items. On the availability of a path to travel from the positive terminal (cathode) to the negative terminal (anode), the electrons separate from the lithium and start moving following the available route. Simultaneously, lithium leaves the graphite and becomes positively (+ve) charged. This state of lithium is now known as Lithium Ion.


So, in the same way, when thousands of lithium atoms leave the graphite, they become positively charged so the flow of electrons begins. The electrolyte provides the way for the lithium ions to make their way to cobalt (the other side, acting as the cathode).


Lithium-ion Battery Demand Globally


According to data from Benchmark’s lithium ion battery database, the following image shows the projection on demand of lithium all over the world from 2016 to 2030.

Figure 1: Lithium Demand Projection world-wide


Figure 1: Lithium Demand Projection world-wide

Researches show that the demand for the lithium-ion battery has dramatically increased exponentially over the last 10 years all over the world and especially in Europe. This particularly includes the demand for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles and energy storing systems. In addition, many projections and experts indicate the demand for lithium-ion batteries to reach an unexpected amount of 9300 gigawatt-hours by 2030, while it was just 0.5 gigawatt-hours in 2010.


Lithium-ion Battery Demand in Europe


European countries are of course the most energy-consuming zone in the globe. The main energy-consuming domains are factories, electric vehicles, and energy-storing systems. And as one can easily notice that the lithium-ion battery is the most preferred choice for any of the above domains and areas. Therefore, lithium-ion battery is the tremendously manufactured, supplied, and used battery in Europe.


As the electrical vehicles and other product’s fleet is increased globally, the sales in Europe, of new electric cars are also enhanced up to 15%. This increase in the sale of electric cars in Europe also boosts up the need for EU lithium ion batteries. As per the Action Economy plan of Europe to achieve a carbon-free environment, the demand for EU lithium ion batteries is reaching its peak. For achieving the E-Europe, a number of criteria like high power, long autonomy, cheap and long life with high power density are required and for that purpose, lithium ion batteries are the best choice.


That is the reason China is dominating its ion batteries production and hence Europe in its way to be the number one manufacturer of lithium ion batteries, adopting different plans and following a road-map towards the high-level production of EU lithium batteries. During 2019, the share of Europe in exporting lithium ion batteries is about 25% worldwide.


Maros Sefcovic, in a conference, said that the European Union is confident that by 2025, they are making its way to produce enough batteries that would be enough to provide power to electrical vehicles without importing. He further claimed that due to such production of the battery cells, six million electrical vehicles would be powered.

European lithium news

European lithium news

There is a need for big investments in the battery manufacturing industry to boost it to the level so that 13 million electrical vehicles could be on Europe’s roads. China produces about 80 percent of the world’s lithium ion batteries. Comparing to China, Europe’s battery industry grows faster. There are about 15 big-scaled battery factories under construction. There are standards Brussels going to propose for batteries’ carbon footprint (Reuters, 2020).


Marcos Service, Commission’s vise president chaired the 5th ministerial meeting of the European Battery Alliance was held on March 12, 2021, with the industrial stakeholders to cope with the strategies and advancements regarding batteries along with to cover the gaps in the battery value chain in Europe. There are two topics that are highly focused in the meeting & the first one to find better ways to fill the gaps in the European Union labor market and secondly to develop a more robust and integrated raw material primary and secondary supply chain (EBA and Alliance, 2021).


On February 19, 2021, Northvolt, A Swedish lithium ion battery manufacturer unfolds its idea to launch Europe’s largest factory in Poland for an energy storage solution that will be a remarkable success in the energy storage market. Europe, the second-biggest market, after China, is planning to increase its battery production rate to about 40.1 percent annually between 2020 and 2025 (Adams, 2021).


Lithium Ion Batteries Manufacturing Countries:

Lithium Ion Batteries Manufacturing

Lithium Ion Batteries Manufacturing

Due to high energy density, cheap and long life, lithium ion batteries are the most preferred choice over other power sources. Since 2015, the lithium ion batteries exports overall increased about 18.4%. Following are the largest manufacturer companies of lithium ion batteries:

Anco Macao Commercial Offshore Li (Macao)

Black & Decker Suzhou Precision (China)

Chervon Limited (Hong Kong)

Samsung SDI Co Ltd (South Korea)

Sanyo Electric Co Ltd (Japan)


Circular Economy Action Plan


European Commission has framed and passed the Circular Economy Action Plan to design a pathway for circular economy enabling the European Union to double the use rate for circular material, to reduce European Union’s carbon and material footprint for contributing to the economic market. One of the emerging waste streams in EU is electrical and electronic equipment. About less than 40 percent of the electronic waste is recycled in European Union’s countries.


The value of this equipment is lost when they are completely dumped rather than taking actions to repair them by updating or repairing their soft wares, by replacing the batteries, or by making appropriate modifications to make it useable again. According to the survey, 2 out of 3 would prefer to use the electronic devices for a longer period or the device becomes fully malfunction (Plan et al., 2015).


The resources for backing up the power supply and energy and power industry plays a vital in making the power future in terms of economy as well as in terms of when a state or country is seeking progress with the current revolution. In some contexts, the mobility of the future depends on the strategy developed and adopted to store the energy resources to a maximum level.


The European Union Commission is planning to announce a new regulatory framework for batteries. In accordance with the Battery Directives (EUR-Lex, 2006) and Battery Alliance. According to Eurostat, Hungary has recycled about 99.3 lead batteries in 2008 (Eurostat, 2020). According to end-on-vehicles (European Parliament and Council, 2000, p. 34), the commission is also planning to introduce new rules to promote circular business models for end-of-life treatment, for defining a strategy to improvise recycling methods.


Carbon-free Europe


Boris Johnson, British Prime Minister planning to entirely ban out the petrol and diesel-consuming vehicles by 2030 following a goal to make Great Britain carbon-free by 2050.

Talking about the global competition of EU industry in the LiB sector and the linked benefits, rely on the capability of the EU to assist the global markets.

According to JRC Science for policy report (Steen et al., 2017), Figure 2 shows the lithium ion batteries worldwide cell production capacity, which shows that putting aside the Tesla Panasonic company, there is a great contribution of Asian countries who are expanding the lithium cells production;

Figure 2: Worldwide Lithium ion Battery cell production capacity

Figure 2: Worldwide Lithium ion Battery cell production capacity



In the past, Europe in order to fulfill its lithium requirements was dependent on China. But in recent decades, because the European Union has formulated different plans and policies to show that they are moving in the direction of the world’s largest exporter of lithium-ion batteries, China has become the largest supplier of raw materials and cells for lithium batteries.


The main objective of the EU is on energy storage to enable the electric mobility technology more innovative and to achieve this objective, the growth of lithium ion battery industry is the main goal to be pursued. The EU Commission facing two major problems; the bulk investment especially from the private sector and the huge-scale EU labor market to develop a regulatory framework for batteries and battery value chain.

Lithium Battery Exhibition At CITE 2021

lithium ion battery exhibition 2021

lithium ion battery exhibition 2021

CITE China is the leading international trade fair focusing on electronic technologies and reflects the trends of the whole industry. Including smart homes, 5G + Internet, intelligent connected cars, network information industry, integrated circuits, new displays, big data storage, basic electronic components, and other core content industry.

Polinovel extended fair at 1D200 in Exhibition Hall No.1 for home battery backup power supply, plastic lithium-ion battery, solar storage system, trolling motor battery, and much more from April 9~11.2021.

After 3 days of exhibiting and collecting industry information from customers and this fair, we have learned a lot about the current battery trade market. If necessary, please contact sales experts at

If you want to watch this fair video, please click here to learn more.


Best lithium ion battery: The Ultimate Guide

Best lithium ion battery: The Ultimate Guide All information you’re looking for about best lithium iron phosphate battery is right here. Whether you want to know the dealership, how to be a dealership or pricing&cost, your answer is right here. Read this guide to learn how to make importing lithium ion batteries and simple.

  1. Features to consider when choosing the lithium-ion battery
  2. Main parts of lithium ion battery
  3. Lithium-ion Battery Compared to Lead-acid
  4. Best Material for Manufacturing Lithium-ion Battery
  5. Limitations of Lithium-ion Battery.
  6. The Manufacturing Process of a Lithium-ion Battery
  7. How to Troubleshoot a Lithium-ion Battery?
  8. Factors Determining Lithium-ion Battery Price
  9. Safety Features of a Lithium-ion Battery
  10. The future of Lithium-ion Batteries
  11. How to Skyrocket business with a Lithium-ion Battery Dealership
  12. Quality Standard Specifications of a Lithium-ion Battery
  13. Benefits of Lithium-ion Battery Rechargeable Fully
  14. How to Conduct Factory Acceptance Test for Lithium-ion Battery?

Features to consider when choosing the lithium-ion battery

Today, life has become totally remote. Therefore, the use of batteries has also become necessary to keep our routine going. The demand for batteries is increasing day by day. Hence, there is every kind of battery available in the market. But we should choose very carefully considering the reliability and safety concerns. The lithium-ion battery is the recommended and most promising technology to chose for the batteries. Today, I have discussed some features of the lithium-ion battery that you should consider when choosing.

High power density: It contains high energy storage capacity. Hence, suitable for mobiles, PCs, energy-efficient vehicles, electrical equipment, and much more.

Less maintenance required: Unlike other technical batteries, a Li-ion battery does not require periodic charging and disposal because it requires less maintenance.

Low-temperature storage: Li-ion batteries, when stored in cool places, become more efficient for performance.

Self-discharge: It is one of such batteries that do not need to have current to get charged. Li-ion also has characteristics to be set by itself.

Durability and Reliability: The li-ion battery is reliable and suitable for many energy-efficient applications. It does not need to be changed frequently and lasts long.


Lithium-ion batteries are efficient in performance and service life. Therefore, its demand and use have increased over time. It is used for many electrical or energy-efficient applications. Before choosing it, you should consider its features like power density, maintenance, reliability, and service life.

Main parts of lithium ion battery

Lithium ion, one of the world-wide used battery was first produced in 1991 by Sony. Lithium ion batteries, now a days have a potential range of use including their excellent performance in cars, airplanes, mobile phones, large scale solar systems and in small households as an energy storing device.

A lithium ion battery is made of four main and essential components such as cathode, anode, electrolyte and salt bridge or separator. These parts are the basics of a lithium ion battery and the battery my not function as an energy source without any of these four parts.

1) Cathode:

Is made of lithium and is known as negative node or negative terminal. This electrode absorbs electrons from the external circuit and is the source if lithium ions. Determination of the capacity and voltage of a battery relate to the cathode.

2) Anode:

Anode is referred to as the positive node or positive terminal. This electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit and is the storing unit of every type of lithium ion battery. As a result, anode is oxidized (loses electrons) during the discharge of the battery. And cathode is oxidized during the charging reaction of the battery.

3) Electrolytes:

Electrolytes are generally liquids such as water with dissolved salts, acids or alkaline that function as a conductor between anode and cathode inside the battery.

4) Salt bridge:

A salt bridge or even referred as separator is porous material used to separate the two electrolytes (anode and cathode), but yet to maintain them connected. So that the chemical reaction would not stop.

Lithium-ion Battery Compared to Lead-acid

Energy is becoming the commodity of almost every human’s life now a day. Every individual is looking for an effective, efficient, and economic device to facilitate their needs in energy-related appliances. Thus storing energy can be considered the most wanted and significant phenomenon in an energy system.

Battery, as an electrical storage medium, is the most important and delicate part of every type of solar energy system, RV, EV, E-bike, forklift, and others. While searching for an energy storage battery used in all the systems mentioned above, two of the most common battery chemistry types are lithium-ion and lead-acid. The electrode part of a lithium-ion battery is made of metal lithium, while a lead-acid is made of a metal lead. In this short article, we will explain, how is a lithium-ion battery compared to a lead-acid.

Lithium-ion or lead-acid battery, which one to purchase?

Normally, differences come in performance and cost from the difference in the chemistry of batteries. However, both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries can be considered as perfect energy storage devices, here is how they stack up when compared head to head.


If you are looking for a battery at a lower price, then a lead-acid battery can simply be your choice. Purchasing and installing a lithium-ion battery system can be numerous times more expensive than a similarly-sized lead-acid battery system. despite, the higher purchasing and installation cost of a lithium-ion battery, the life cycle of a lithium-ion battery dominates over several types of batteries used in any energy storing system.


Capacity is a measure of stored charge or energy within a battery. In addition, capacity is one the most significant factors for selecting a battery. Normally, batteries with higher capacity rates are preferable. however, they may have high cost. A lithium-ion battery is basically of high capacity compared to a lead-acid battery, occupying the same physical size. It means that more charge may be stored in a lithium-ion battery and consequently, can be used for longer periods of time, draining energy from.

Normally, a lithium-ion battery comes with three cells each of 2.6 Ah, and combined in parallel to produce 7.8Ah, or ten 2.6Ah cells to produce 26Ah. But you can even get numerous cells of high Ah rating to fulfil your requirements of high capacity demand.

Depth of discharge

The factor, depth of discharge means what percentage of the stored energy can you drain safely after charging it completely. For example, if a battery has 60% the depth of discharge rating, then it means that you should drain or use 60 percent of its stored energy, or it will severely be damaging for the life of the battery if used after the depth of discharge limit is reached.

Generally, a lithium-ion battery comes with %85 of depth of discharge. On the other hand, a lead-acid battery does not have a depth of discharge of more than %50. Indicating that a lithium-ion battery is suitable and efficient enough for cases where powering loads and draining energy for long periods of time is wanted.


Efficiency of a battery means how much energy stored in the battery is actually available for powering loads and how much is lost inside the battery. The lithium-ion battery has a leading efficacy than a lead-acid one. The 95 or more than 95 percent of efficiency for lithium-ion batteries can be considered so reliable, in contrast to the 80-85 percent efficiency of a lead-acid battery.

Life cycle or lifespan

One charging and discharging operation of a battery is referred to as one cycle of the battery. A battery cannot be used infinite times of charge-discharge cycles. Due to each charge-discharge cycle, the capacity of a battery decreases slightly. Therefore, choosing a perfect number of charge-discharge cycle batteries is a common desire of any buyer.

The number of life cycles of any battery may vary from study to study and from type to type. But the lithium-ion battery can last several times of life cycles compared to a lead-acid battery. As one can note that a lithium-ion battery can complete 300-500 life cycles comfortably. Which is a high rate comparing to the 50-100 life cycles of a lead-acid battery.


Getting understood all of the above explanation, you can now decide that whether type of these two batteries is of your choice. But to be clever, one can easily decide that lithium-ion battery is the most effective, efficient, capacitive and lasting much time in contrast to the lead-acid battery. However, in cases where battery energy is not of frequent use, lead-acid battery may be a better decision. By doing this, you can avoid many of the drawbacks of a lead-acid battery and save your budget instead of investing it in a high-cost lithium-ion battery.

Best Material for Manufacturing Lithium-ion Battery

There are many choices for selecting the best materials for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery. And deciding whether materials can be the most perfect choice, depends on the cost, efficiency, charge storing capacity, safety and lifespan of the materials. So the manufacturer then can pick up the best material among all different alternatives to have the best aggregation of normally used materials in a lithium-ion battery.

But before we enter the main subject, the best material for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery, it’s quite important to have a brief review of the main parts of a lithium-ion battery.

Anode:   Anode is referred to as the positive node or positive terminal. This electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit and is the charge storing unit of every type of lithium-ion battery. As a result, the anode is oxidized (loses electrons) during the discharge of the battery.

Cathode: cathode is known as a negative node or negative terminal. This electrode absorbs electrons from the external circuit and is the source of lithium ions.

Electrolytes:   Electrolytes are generally liquids such as water with dissolved salts, acids or alkalis that function as a conductor between anode and cathode inside the battery.

Salt bridge:   A salt bridge or a separator is porous material used to separate the two electrodes (anode and cathode), but yet to maintain them connected. So that the chemical reaction would not stop.

Now having a general idea about all the parts of a lithium-ion battery, let’s log in to the main article which is, indicating the perfect material for producing a lithium-ion battery.

Anode Best Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery

There is a range of materials used to manufacture the anode of a lithium-ion battery such as lithium, graphite, lithium-alloying materials, intermetallic, and silicon. Lithium can be simply pointed out as a perfect anode material but can cause problems with cyclic behavior. Graphite anodes can be considered as the most utilized anodic material since it has a very low price and is available enough. However, its poor theoretical capacity (372mAh/g) is of special concern. Alloy and intermetallic anodes however have high capacities, but can have mighty volume change that results a less lifespan.

Cathode Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery

Generally used materials as the cathode part of a lithium-ion battery are, the oxides of lithium-metal (such as LiCoO2, LiMnO4), vanadium oxides, olivine, and rechargeable lithium oxides. Lithium-metal oxides encompassing cobalt and nickel are the most common selected materials but due to the scarce amount of cobalt in nature and its toxic characteristic, it may have some drawbacks. Manganese offers a low-cost alternative with a high thermal threshold, but has some limited cycling behaviors. Vanadium oxides show large capacity and the best kinetics. However, due to lithium insertion and extraction, it may have cyclic limitations.

Electrolyte Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery

Selecting an adequate electrolyte material becomes very significant, due to the matter that it should be able to withstand the battery existing voltage and high temperatures. Well-known electrolyte materials can be categorized as liquid, polymer and solid state electrolytes. Liquid electrolytes are generally organic and solvent based. Flammability is their most common consideration. Polymer electrolytes are usually mixed in composites with ceramic nanoparticles, causing higher conductivity. Solid electrolytes are lithium-ion crystals and ceramic glasses. their exclusive criterion is that they eliminate the need of separators and risk of thermal runaway.

Separator Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery

Separators are either considered to be synthesized in sheets and assembled with electrodes, or deposited onto one electrode. For liquid electrolyte materials, the separator can be a foam material which is soaked with electrolytes and holds it in place. However, separators for solid and some polymer electrolytes are not required.


During above article, range of lithium-ion battery materials were discussed and their well-known characteristics were analyzed briefly.

  • The most perfect material for the anode part of a lithium-ion battery can be suggested as graphite powder, due to the fact, that graphite anodes can overcome the voltage requirements of generally used cathode, are economic, light and may not result any aging troubles relative to other anode materials.
  • To get the best cathode material, normally the mixture of cobalt, nickel and manganese or lithium cobalt oxides are often used to combine the best properties and to meet all requirements.
  • Ionic liquid-based electrolytes can simply be suggested by many manufacturers for a lithium-ion battery as the most efficient, reliable and safe electrolytes. However, Solid electrolytes may also be considered, since they reduce the separator cost of the battery.
  • Polyethylene and polypropylene are the most common used separator materials, which present high performance and excellent safety considerations.

Limitations of Lithium-ion Battery

Lithium-ion, the fastest growing battery chemistry, is of special interest for almost every energy consumer. Its high energy density, high depth of discharge, perfect cell voltage (3.6v), low maintenance, (approximately half self-discharge rate comparing to all other batteries), and excellent life cycle, are all a lithium-ion’s battery exclusive and fantastic specifications, that make lithium-ion battery the most sufficient and practical technology in battery manufacturing market.

despite all its interesting and advantageous characteristics, a lithium-ion battery does gain some limitations and drawbacks. Which can sometimes be of a special concern for the users. below are some of the limitations and disadvantages of a lithium-ion battery.

 Requires an Extra Protection Circuit

A protection circuit is generally required into each pack to maintain safe operation during its charge and discharge period. The main task of a protection circuit is to safeguard the battery from reaching its peak voltage during charging process, and from dropping to a too low voltage during discharging process. And by doing this, the cell temperature is also controlled to a state with no hazard of maximum temperature state.


Aging is another frequent concern of a lithium-ion battery. However, many of the lithium-ion battery manufacturers do not reveal a complete enough explanation of this matter, but one can easily notice that a lithium-ion battery does lose its efficiency after 2-3 years. Thus if stored in a cool place and used at a regular 40% depth of discharge, the battery can even reduce its aging affect. Consequently, a matter of profit is that this is still a healthy life cycle in contrast to other battery chemistries.

High Purchasing Cost

high purchasing cost of a lithium-ion battery is another barrier toward its validity in many RV, EV, fishing boat, E bike and solar energy storage systems. A lithium-ion battery costs 40% higher than a nickel-cadmium battery, hundreds or even thousands of dollars high than lead-acid ($121/kwh*100*6 for a lead-acid battery and $605/kwh*50*1, initial cost for a lithium-ion battery). In addition, this can be the case of every battery cost while compared to lithium-ion battery. However, the payback period of lithium-ion battery can be cost effective compared to almost any type of batter technology.

Danger of Explosion

Lithium-ion battery, which is rapidly making its place in transportation and energy storage systems world-wide, can create some safety concerns such as, fire and explosion hazards. The lithium-ion cells can undergo the thermal runaway in some events and can result of an explosion. This explosion may cause from the releasing of flammable gases inside the confined battery cells and can damage the whole battery or even a valuable object or human being near it. It is important to notice that these gases can result from chemical reactions inside the cell, from over state of charge and other parameters.

The Manufacturing Process of a Lithium-ion Battery

A lithium-ion battery is manufactured through different processes and of many materials. And they can be categorized in three steps such as electrode manufacturing, cell assembly and cell finishing. One of its most significant parts anode, is made of lithium cobalt oxide (having extremely high cycling properties at high voltages), a crystalized carbon as the cathode and organic solvent, optimized for the specialty carbon as the electrolyte. But the procedures and processes steps for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery can be summarized as follows.

  Electrodes Manufacturing

For producing electrodes of a lithium-ion battery, the manufacturers proceed through a number of processes and steps. Thus Some of lasting much time and some passes rapidly. The complete manufacturing process is as follow.

  • Cast a slurry onto a metallic current collector, containing some active material, conductive carbon and a binder.
  •  the binder generally polyvinylidene fluoride, is used to pre-dissolve in the solvent part of the electrolytes. The solvent can usually be N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
  • The mixing process continues for a while and during the process, the binder flows around and coat the active material and carbon particles.
  • The resulting slurry is then cast onto the current collector and after drying it, the process ends. Hence, the drying process may take a long period of time, assisted with an extra ordinary evaporating system. It can take 12-24 hours at 120° C for the electrodes to dry completely.

The electrode of a lithium-ion battery can also be manufactured by spray painting techniques. During the spray painting technique, some specific NMP based paints are used to spray each component of electrode onto the desired surface. The spray painting technique still requires an evaporating system to dry the electrodes at higher temperatures.

Electrolytes Manufacturing

Filling electrolytes falls in the cell assembly step of battery manufacturing process. Electrolytes, most commonly of three types are, liquid, polymer and solid state electrolytes. In which, every type with the materials used, has particular advantages and limitations. But whether type of the electrolyte is chosen can be filled to the battery after the cathode-anode step is done.

  • The electrolytes are filled into the battery after the electrode is manufactured.
  • While filling the electrolyte into the battery cell, a high-precision dosing needle is used to cast it into the battery cell.
  • The electrolytes should be filled in a manner that can wet the electrodes and separator. Which can be one of the most gradual step in battery production.

All the other parts such as insulators, seals and safety devices attachment fall into the battery finishing step, which is carried out after the two crucial steps and the battery is charged fully for testing.

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UN38.3 Certificate For Lithium Battery Transportation

Did you know that lithium batteries need to certified to UN38.3 for transportation?


In today’s society, rechargeable lithium batteries are becoming more and more popular in our lives and the application fields are also expanding, such as mobility vehicles (RVs, Caravan, Motorhome, Camper, Marine, Boat, Golf Carts, E-scooters, E-Bike, etc.), solar energy storage system (solar power system, home energy storage system, UPS, etc.), electronic products (mobile phones, laptops, cameras, remote control toys, etc.), so the transportation demand for lithium batteries or goods containing lithium batteries are also increasing.


The United Nations has specially formulated standards for the transportation of dangerous goods (refer to Clause 38.3 of Part 3 of the “United Nations Manual of Dangerous Goods Transport Tests and Standards”) to ensure transportation safety and meet customer demand for dangerous goods transportation.


The United Nations has specially formulated standards (refer to Clause 38.3 of Part 3 of the “United Nations Manual of Dangerous Goods Transport Tests and Standards”) to ensure transportation safety of dangerous goods and meet customer demand.


The Department of Transportation and other international regulatory parties require lithium batteries or goods containing lithium batteries certified to UN38.3 before transport.


Lithium batteries must undergo eight rigorous tests conducted by an accredited independent testing laboratory to receive UN38.3 certification.


In this blog, we will explain which eight tests the battery will perform and how to perform the tests.


Altitude Simulation, which simulates low pressure (high altitude) transportation.

Lithium batteries should be stored at a pressure below 11.6kPa for at least 6 hours at ambient temperature (20±5°C). The battery should have no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture, no fire, and the open-circuit voltage of the battery should not be less than 90% of the voltage before this test.


Thermal Test, which evaluates the sealing integrity and internal electrical connections of the battery through rapid and extreme temperature changes.

The lithium batteries are to be stored at high temperature 72±2℃ for at least 6 hours, then stored at low temperature -40±2℃ for at least 6 hours. The maximum interval time for switching between two extreme temperature conditions should be less than 30 minutes. This procedure is to be repeated 10 times, after which the tested batteries are to be stored for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20±5℃). For large batteries, the duration of exposure to the extremes should be at least 12 hours. The battery should have no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture, no fire, and the open-circuit voltage of the battery should not be less than 90% of the voltage before this test.


Vibration Test, which simulates the vibration generated during transportation.

Lithium batteries are firmly secured to the platform of the vibration machine without distorting the cells in such a manner as to faithfully transmit the vibration. The vibration should be a sinusoidal waveform with a logarithmic sweep between 7Hz and 200Hz, and back to 7Hz traversed in 15 minutes. This cycle should be repeated 12 times for a total of 3 hours for each of the three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the battery. One of the directions of vibration must be perpendicular to the terminal face. The battery should have no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture, no fire, and the open-circuit voltage of the battery should not be less than 90% of the voltage before this test.


Shock Test, which assesses cells and battery’s ability to withstand cumulative physical shock during transportation.

Lithium batteries should be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which will support all mounting surfaces of each test battery. Each cell or battery shall be subjected to a half-sine shock of peak acceleration of 150gn and pulse duration of 6 ms. For larger cell or battery, the peak acceleration shall be 50gn and pulse duration of 11 ms. Each cell or battery shall be subject to three shocks in the positive direction and three shocks in the negative direction in each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the cell or battery for a total of 18 shocks. The battery should have no leakage, no venting, no disassembly, no rupture, no fire, and the open-circuit voltage of the battery should not be less than 90% of the voltage before this test.


External Short Circuit, which assesses the battery’s ability to withstand prolonged external short circuit conditions.

Lithium batteries should be heated for a period of time necessary to reach a homogeneous stabilized temperature of 57±4℃, measure on the external case. Then the batteries should be subjected to a short circuit condition with a total external resistance of less than 0.1Ω. This short circuit lasts at least 1 hour after the cell or battery external case temperature returns to 57±4℃. Within 6 hours after the test is completed, there should be no rupture, no disassembly, no fire, etc., and the batteries external temperature should not exceed 170℃.


Impact / Crush Test, which simulates a battery’s ability to withstand mechanical abuse that could create an internal short circuit.

The sample cell or component cell is to be placed on a flat smooth surface. A type 316 stainless steel bar with a diameter of 15.8±0.1mm and length of 6cm to be placed across the center of the sample cell. Drop a 9.1±0.1kg weight from a height of 61±2.5cm to the intersection of the steel bar and the sample. Use a vertical track or pipe that has almost no friction and has minimal resistance to the falling weight to guide the drop hammer to fall at 90 degrees along the horizontal support surface. Each cell should be subjected to a single impact. Within 6 hours after the test is completed, there should be no rupture, no disassembly, no fire, etc., and the cells and batteries external temperature should not exceed 170℃.


Overcharge Test, which is to evaluate the battery’s ability to withstand overcharge conditions.

The charge current should be twice the manufacturer’s recommended maximum continuous charge current. The charging cut-off voltage is divided into the following two cases:

  1. When the manufacture’s recommended charge voltage is not more than 18V, the charge cut-off voltage of the test should be 2 times the maximum charging voltage or 22V, whichever is less;
  2. When the manufacturer’s recommended charge voltage is more than 18V, the charge cut-off voltage of the test should be 1.2 times the maximum charging voltage.

Tests are to be conducted at ambient temperature, the duration of the test should be 24 hours. After the test, there should be no disassembly and no fire within 7 days.


Forced Discharge Test, which tests the battery’s ability to withstand its stated maximum discharge rating.

Each cell should be forced discharged at ambient temperature by connecting it in series with a 12VDC power supply at an initial current equal to the maximum discharge current specified by the manufacturer. The specified discharge current is to be obtained by connecting a resistive load of the appropriate size and rating in series with the test cell. Each cell should be forced discharged for a time interval (in hours) equal to its rated capacity divided by the initial test current (in ampere). After the test, there should be no disassembly and no fire within 7 days.


If the lithium battery is not installed in the device, and each package contains more than 24 battery cells or 12 batteries, an additional 1.2m drop test is required.


1.2m Drop Test

The package must be able to withstand the drop test of 1.2m in any orientation without damaging the battery or cell in the package, without changing the position of the battery in the package, so that the battery and the battery contact each other, and no battery leaks from the package.


The responsibility for ensuring that the battery complies with the United Nations standards rests with the seller. Unfortunately, some products on the market do not meet the standards. The life of lithium batteries may be as long as 15 years or longer, depending on how often it is discharged. UN38.3 is an extremely important safeguard for your customers, and UN38.3 certification should be a primary consideration in your lithium battery purchase.


Polinovel is committed to providing safe and environmentally sustainable lithium battery products. We have invested in UN38.3 certification in our products to ensure that we meet the industry’s quality and safety standards.

12v lithium battery

Polinovel’s Various Product Series Introduction

Polinovel lithium battery is versatile and suitable for many deep cycle applications. All of our lithium batteries perform better than conventional lead-acid batteries in RV, Marine, Solar Storage, Light Electric Vehicle etc applications. They all offer more usable energy in lightweight, safe, reliable and maintenance-free. Our battery products include 12V, 24V and 48V LiFePO4 batteries packaged in plastic or iron case, we also have some special battery series designed for specific applications.

In this blog, we will introduce the features of our each product series.

Ultra Low Temperature Series

The ARCTIC Series was designed to solve the problem of charging in low temperature weather, while also assuring lithium batteries perform outstanding for cold weather use. Polinovel ARCTIC Series batteries can safely charge at low temperature -35℃ (-31℉). The battery features patented self-heating technology internal, which draws power from charger itself, and do not need to install additional heating components external. Simply plug the battery into lithium charger same as you use others, the heating system will take care of the rest. In addition, it have the same advantages as other lithium batteries, like more usable capacity, longer life, lighter weight and maintenance-free etc.

The ARCTIC Series lithium batteries are perfect for applications where charging in low temperature below 0℃ is needed. They are also ideal replacing batteries for those using lead acid batteries in cold weather. In addition, we also welcome customize battery specification for specific application.

ARCTIC Series Lithium Battery


HT Series

Our HT Series are derivate from HD Series lithium batteries, they share the same strong structure advantages, while equip with advanced Bluetooth communication technology. Through Polinovel 2.0 APP (it’s free to download from Google Pay or APP Store), you can get instant access to monitor battery status including battery state of charge (SOC), voltage, capacity, charging discharge current, cycle times, temperature and single cell status. In addition, with APP, it is also convenient to localize potential issues of battery from a smart phone or tablet.

HT Series Lithium Battery


HDN Series

Our HDN Series are embedded with LCD screen and USB output port on top of batter case. The LCD screen display real-time voltage and SOC of battery, and the USB port can quick output power to charge your phone or other electronics before out of power. Except common 12V lithium batteries, the HDN Series also have 24V models available.

HDN Series Lithium Battery


NOVEL Series

The NOVEL Series goes with advanced technology of Bluetooth communication. Through Android or IOS APP, you are freely to check the battery working status on smart phone or tablet, the data including battery voltage, capacity, SOC, charging discharging current, cycle times and temperature. With these data, you are more convenient to plan the travel mileage reasonably, without worry about not able to reach the destination or return due to insufficient power.

NOVEL Series Lithium Battery


HD Series

The HD Series are our top-rated lifepo4 batteries, covering the most often using sizes of traditional lead acid batteries from 50Ah to 300Ah.

Battery internal utilize patented screw-fasten assembly technology and the highest quality components that make our lithium batteries are different from others. The robust construction proves to be more durable and superior for using in even harsh environment. These batteries are highly recognized by customers in application of RV, motorhome, caravan, boat, yacht, catamaran, commercial vehicles etc.

HD Series Lithium Battery


V+ Series

Our V+ Series are wall-mounted batteries specifically designed to store energy generated by solar at day, so you can use the power at night or during outage. The V+ Series made up with the most stable LiFePO4 chemistry, configuring intelligent battery management system (BMS) internal and dual-switch protection external, that are utmost safe for install and operate in house.

The V+ series of lithium batteries also support up to 10pcs in parallel to increase available capacity for longer run time, they are compatible with most brands of smart solar inverters on the market, and ideal for home solar systems.

V+ Series Lithium Battery


ES Series

Our ES Series are larger batteries with more power in single case, they allow for higher peak and higher continuous discharge currents compare to our other series standard lithium batteries. This is ideal if you need more energy but you do not want to increase the battery quantity in series-parallel connection because of the physical size constraint.

ES Series Lithium Battery


LEV Series

Our LEV Series are iron case packaged lithium batteries specifically for light electric vehicles applications, like golf cart, low speed electric car, sightseeing car, city sweeper, AGV rail car etc. These batteries can be flexibly customizing in voltage, capacity, work current, size, connectors and other accessories to perfectly fit with the specific vehicles.

LEV Series Lithium Battery


Polinovel offer a wide range of lithium batteries for any application, from small battery pack to complex battery system. We also offer customize lithium battery service to perfectly fulfill the requirement of specific applications. Check out our full line of product or contact us to providing battery solution for you.


Four Concerns About Lithium Battery Charging

When to Charge the LiFePO4 Battery?

Generally LiFePO4 batteries do not need to be charged after each use if they are not fully discharged. LiFePO4 batteries would not get damaged when left in a partial state of charge. You can charge your LiFePO4 batteries after each use or when they have been 80% discharged. Please note that we recommend storing batteries at 50% state of charge (SOC) to minimize irreversible capacity loss.


Can LiFePO4 battery be charged in cold weather?

The recommended ideal charging temperature for LiFePO4 batteries is between 0°C to 45°C, within which can best guarantee the battery to be fully charged to 100%. As your actual weather condition is extremely cold at a temperature below 0°C, we recommend reducing the charge current as follows, until the temperature is >0°C.


  1. Temperature 0°C to -10°C,charge at 0.1C (10% of the battery capacity)
  2. Temperature -10°C to -20°C,charge at 0.05C (5% of the battery capacity)


Polinovel LiFePO4 batteries come with a BMS that protects the battery from over-temperature. If the BMS disconnects due to high temperature, wait until the temperature reduces and the BMS reconnects the battery circuit before using or charging the battery. Please refer to exact battery datasheet for more value.


What is CC/CV charging?

This is the most common charging method of lithium batteries, CC refers to Constant Current and CV refers to Constant Voltage. The Two-Step Charging profile can charge lifepo4 battery 100%. Detail charging process as follow:


Constant Current Charging (CC)

The battery is charged at a constant current until the voltage reaches the absorption voltage.


Constant Voltage Charging (CV)

Keep charging the battery at a constant absorption voltage until the current reduces to termination current.


For the constant current, absorption voltage and termination current, please refer to the below chart:


How to charge series or parallel lithium battery system?

If you are going to connecting batteries in series or parallel, please make sure the batteries voltage are on same level before putting them in use. The voltage of battery should be within 50mV of each other, this will minimize the chance of imbalance between batteries. If batteries get out of balance (>50mV), each battery should be individually charged to re-balance. note that each battery voltage is within 50mV of each other before put them in use.

battery recycle

Recycle of Battery

China ranks first in the world with an annual output of 400 million tons of waste, and it is increasing at a rate of about 8% annual. Some of the wastes are recyclable, but most of them are not properly recycled but is landfilled or incinerated. In response to the problem of waste disposal, the waste sorting policy is implemented in 2019 to reduce environmental pollution.

You may ask, can the lithium battery be recycled?

Yes, the contents of lithium-ion batteries are less toxic than most other battery types, which makes them easier to recycle. LiFePO4 batteries can be recycled to recover the materials used in their electrodes, wiring and housing. Some of these materials can be used in new lithium batteries.

Batteries power our daily lives and we have a responsibility to recycle them probably as they reach their end of life. It is not only a responsible and safe thing to do, it also brings many benefits. It helps prevent potentially dangerous hazardous in the battery from damaging the environment. It can prevent potential fires by draining the battery from the garage and helping to protect our natural resources.

There are several types of batteries on the market that need to be recycled in a specific way. Some can be recycled by placing them in a designated battery bin. Some types of batteries require special collection companies for recycling. Be sure to know in advance how and where to recycle the battery.


lifepo4 batteries

Why BMS (Battery Management System) Is So Important In LiFePO4 Batteries?


Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries come in a single package with a lot of power and value. This chemistry of lithium battery is the big part of its superior performance. While all reputed lithium-ion batteries also include another important component along with the battery cells: a carefully designed battery management system (BMS). A well-designed battery management system can utmost protect and monitor a lithium-ion battery to optimize performance, maximize lifetime, and ensure safe operation over a wide range of using conditions.


All Polinovel lifepo4 batteries come along with a BMS integrated inside or outside. Let’s have a closer look at how Polinovel BMS optimizes the life of a lithium iron phosphate batteries.


  1. Over Voltage Protection

LiFePO4 cells operate safely in a range of voltages, typically from 2.0V to 4.2V. Some lithium chemistries result in cells that are highly sensitive to over-voltage, but LiFePO4 cells are more tolerant. Still, significant over-voltage for a prolonged period during charging can cause plating of metallic lithium on the battery’s anode which permanently degrades performance. Also, the cathode material may oxidize, become less stable, and produce carbon dioxide which may lead to a buildup of pressure in the cell. Polinovel BMS limit each cell and the battery itself to a maximum voltage to 3.9V and 15.6V.


  1. Under Voltage Protection

Under-voltage during battery discharge is also a concern since discharging a LiFePO4 cell below approximately 2.0V may result in a breakdown of the electrode materials. The BMS acts as a fail safe to disconnect the battery from circuit if any cell drops below 2.0V. Polinovel lithium batteries have a recommended minimum operational voltage, which is 2.5V for cell, and 10V for battery.


  1. OverCurrent Protection

Every battery has a maximum specified current for safe operation. If a load which draws a higher current to the batter, it can result in overheating the battery. While it’s important to use the battery in a way to keep the current draw below the maximum specification, the BMS again acts as a backstop against over-current conditions and disconnects the battery from circuit.


  1. Short Circuit Protection

Short circuit of the battery is the most serious form of over-current condition. It most commonly happens when the electrodes are accidentally connected with a piece of metal. The BMS must quickly detect a short circuit condition before the sudden and massive current draw overheats the battery and causes catastrophic damage.


  1. Over Temperature

Lithium iron phosphate batteries operate efficiently and safely at temperatures up to 60oC or more. But at higher operating and storage temperatures, as with all batteries, the electrode materials will begin to degrade. The BMS of a lithium battery uses embedded thermistors to  monitor the temperature during operation, and it will disconnect the battery from the circuit at a specified temperature.



Lithium iron phosphate batteries are constructed of more than just individual cells connected together. They also include a battery management system (BMS) which is not usually visible to the end user, makes sure each cell in the battery remains within safe limits. At Polinovel, all our LiFePO4 batteries include an internal or external BMS to protect, control, and monitor the battery to ensure the safety and maximize the lifetime over the full range of operating conditions.


Please refer to Polinovel battery data sheet for the BMS detail value.