Have you found that lithium batteries become less durable in the winter? What is the reason for it? What is the effect of low temperature on the performance of lithium batteries?
How Does Low Temperature Affect Lithium Batteries?
- The activity of lithium ions decreases as the temperature drops. This is because the low temperature affects the resistance of the electrolyte, reducing the rate of lithium ion transport within it. Ultimately, this reduces the amount of usable energy produced by the battery.
- The charging and discharging of the battery is achieved by ion penetration through the diaphragm and ion deintercalation at the positive and negative electrodes. Under low-temperature conditions, the activity and quantity of lithium ions are reduced, so we can’t charge and discharge the battery with a high current.
- Under low temperatures, the viscosity of electrolytes becomes higher and the ion conduction rate slows down, resulting in polarization in lithium ion batteries and capacity attenuation.
- When the temperature is particularly low, lithium ion intercalation on the graphite electrode and lithium plating reaction occur simultaneously. As the temperature decreases, both the intercalation rate and the conductivity of the electrolyte within the battery decrease. Eventually, the overall battery’s power output decreases, which affects the performance of the battery.
How to Maintain Good Performance of Lithium Batteries in Cold Weather?
First, when charging the lithium battery, we need to make sure that the temperature should be above 0℃.
Second, we should avoid the lithium battery being damaged or overcharged at low temperatures by charging the battery with a low current. And we should avoid deep discharge cycles.
What’s more, we can choose the lithium battery with an intelligent control function in the battery charging system, which can automatically adjust the charging current based on the change in temperature. For example, when the temperature is detected to be lower than 0 degrees, the charging current is adjusted to 0.2C~0.3C, and when the temperature is detected below -10 degrees, the current is adjusted to 0.1C.
When the temperature drops, the performance of lithium ion batteries is affected. We should avoid using lithium batteries in a cold environment. Or we can use lithium batteries that have good low-temperature performance.
Polinovel, a professional LiFePO4 battery manufacturer, can offer you powerful lithium batteries with great performance in a cold environment. What’s more, Polinovel specially designed a low-temperature LFP battery – Arctic series. This series has smart heating technology, which maximizes the battery’s safety and performance at low temperatures down to -35℃.
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