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- Features to consider when choosing the lithium-ion battery
- Main parts of lithium ion battery
- Lithium-ion Battery Compared to Lead-acid
- Best Material for Manufacturing Lithium-ion Battery
- Limitations of Lithium-ion Battery.
- The Manufacturing Process of a Lithium-ion Battery
- How to Troubleshoot a Lithium-ion Battery?
- Factors Determining Lithium-ion Battery Price
- Safety Features of a Lithium-ion Battery
- The future of Lithium-ion Batteries
- How to Skyrocket business with a Lithium-ion Battery Dealership
- Quality Standard Specifications of a Lithium-ion Battery
- Benefits of Lithium-ion Battery Rechargeable Fully
- How to Conduct Factory Acceptance Test for Lithium-ion Battery?
Features to consider when choosing the lithium-ion battery
Today, life has become totally remote. Therefore, the use of batteries has also become necessary to keep our routine going. The demand for batteries is increasing day by day. Hence, there is every kind of battery available in the market. But we should choose very carefully considering the reliability and safety concerns. The lithium-ion battery is the recommended and most promising technology to chose for the batteries. Today, I have discussed some features of the lithium-ion battery that you should consider when choosing.
High power density: It contains high energy storage capacity. Hence, suitable for mobiles, PCs, energy-efficient vehicles, electrical equipment, and much more.
Less maintenance required: Unlike other technical batteries, a Li-ion battery does not require periodic charging and disposal because it requires less maintenance.
Low-temperature storage: Li-ion batteries, when stored in cool places, become more efficient for performance.
Self-discharge: It is one of such batteries that do not need to have current to get charged. Li-ion also has characteristics to be set by itself.
Durability and Reliability: The li-ion battery is reliable and suitable for many energy-efficient applications. It does not need to be changed frequently and lasts long.
Lithium-ion batteries are efficient in performance and service life. Therefore, its demand and use have increased over time. It is used for many electrical or energy-efficient applications. Before choosing it, you should consider its features like power density, maintenance, reliability, and service life.
Main parts of lithium ion battery
Lithium ion, one of the world-wide used battery was first produced in 1991 by Sony. Lithium ion batteries, now a days have a potential range of use including their excellent performance in cars, airplanes, mobile phones, large scale solar systems and in small households as an energy storing device.
A lithium ion battery is made of four main and essential components such as cathode, anode, electrolyte and salt bridge or separator. These parts are the basics of a lithium ion battery and the battery my not function as an energy source without any of these four parts.
Is made of lithium and is known as negative node or negative terminal. This electrode absorbs electrons from the external circuit and is the source if lithium ions. Determination of the capacity and voltage of a battery relate to the cathode.
Anode is referred to as the positive node or positive terminal. This electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit and is the storing unit of every type of lithium ion battery. As a result, anode is oxidized (loses electrons) during the discharge of the battery. And cathode is oxidized during the charging reaction of the battery.
Electrolytes are generally liquids such as water with dissolved salts, acids or alkaline that function as a conductor between anode and cathode inside the battery.
4) Salt bridge:
A salt bridge or even referred as separator is porous material used to separate the two electrolytes (anode and cathode), but yet to maintain them connected. So that the chemical reaction would not stop.
Lithium-ion Battery Compared to Lead-acid
Energy is becoming the commodity of almost every human’s life now a day. Every individual is looking for an effective, efficient, and economic device to facilitate their needs in energy-related appliances. Thus storing energy can be considered the most wanted and significant phenomenon in an energy system.
Battery, as an electrical storage medium, is the most important and delicate part of every type of solar energy system, RV, EV, E-bike, forklift, and others. While searching for an energy storage battery used in all the systems mentioned above, two of the most common battery chemistry types are lithium-ion and lead-acid. The electrode part of a lithium-ion battery is made of metal lithium, while a lead-acid is made of a metal lead. In this short article, we will explain, how is a lithium-ion battery compared to a lead-acid.
Lithium-ion or lead-acid battery, which one to purchase?
Normally, differences come in performance and cost from the difference in the chemistry of batteries. However, both lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries can be considered as perfect energy storage devices, here is how they stack up when compared head to head.
If you are looking for a battery at a lower price, then a lead-acid battery can simply be your choice. Purchasing and installing a lithium-ion battery system can be numerous times more expensive than a similarly-sized lead-acid battery system. despite, the higher purchasing and installation cost of a lithium-ion battery, the life cycle of a lithium-ion battery dominates over several types of batteries used in any energy storing system.
Capacity is a measure of stored charge or energy within a battery. In addition, capacity is one the most significant factors for selecting a battery. Normally, batteries with higher capacity rates are preferable. however, they may have high cost. A lithium-ion battery is basically of high capacity compared to a lead-acid battery, occupying the same physical size. It means that more charge may be stored in a lithium-ion battery and consequently, can be used for longer periods of time, draining energy from.
Normally, a lithium-ion battery comes with three cells each of 2.6 Ah, and combined in parallel to produce 7.8Ah, or ten 2.6Ah cells to produce 26Ah. But you can even get numerous cells of high Ah rating to fulfil your requirements of high capacity demand.
Depth of discharge
The factor, depth of discharge means what percentage of the stored energy can you drain safely after charging it completely. For example, if a battery has 60% the depth of discharge rating, then it means that you should drain or use 60 percent of its stored energy, or it will severely be damaging for the life of the battery if used after the depth of discharge limit is reached.
Generally, a lithium-ion battery comes with %85 of depth of discharge. On the other hand, a lead-acid battery does not have a depth of discharge of more than %50. Indicating that a lithium-ion battery is suitable and efficient enough for cases where powering loads and draining energy for long periods of time is wanted.
Efficiency of a battery means how much energy stored in the battery is actually available for powering loads and how much is lost inside the battery. The lithium-ion battery has a leading efficacy than a lead-acid one. The 95 or more than 95 percent of efficiency for lithium-ion batteries can be considered so reliable, in contrast to the 80-85 percent efficiency of a lead-acid battery.
Life cycle or lifespan
One charging and discharging operation of a battery is referred to as one cycle of the battery. A battery cannot be used infinite times of charge-discharge cycles. Due to each charge-discharge cycle, the capacity of a battery decreases slightly. Therefore, choosing a perfect number of charge-discharge cycle batteries is a common desire of any buyer.
The number of life cycles of any battery may vary from study to study and from type to type. But the lithium-ion battery can last several times of life cycles compared to a lead-acid battery. As one can note that a lithium-ion battery can complete 300-500 life cycles comfortably. Which is a high rate comparing to the 50-100 life cycles of a lead-acid battery.
Getting understood all of the above explanation, you can now decide that whether type of these two batteries is of your choice. But to be clever, one can easily decide that lithium-ion battery is the most effective, efficient, capacitive and lasting much time in contrast to the lead-acid battery. However, in cases where battery energy is not of frequent use, lead-acid battery may be a better decision. By doing this, you can avoid many of the drawbacks of a lead-acid battery and save your budget instead of investing it in a high-cost lithium-ion battery.
Best Material for Manufacturing Lithium-ion Battery
There are many choices for selecting the best materials for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery. And deciding whether materials can be the most perfect choice, depends on the cost, efficiency, charge storing capacity, safety and lifespan of the materials. So the manufacturer then can pick up the best material among all different alternatives to have the best aggregation of normally used materials in a lithium-ion battery.
But before we enter the main subject, the best material for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery, it’s quite important to have a brief review of the main parts of a lithium-ion battery.
Anode: Anode is referred to as the positive node or positive terminal. This electrode gives up electrons to the external circuit and is the charge storing unit of every type of lithium-ion battery. As a result, the anode is oxidized (loses electrons) during the discharge of the battery.
Cathode: cathode is known as a negative node or negative terminal. This electrode absorbs electrons from the external circuit and is the source of lithium ions.
Electrolytes: Electrolytes are generally liquids such as water with dissolved salts, acids or alkalis that function as a conductor between anode and cathode inside the battery.
Salt bridge: A salt bridge or a separator is porous material used to separate the two electrodes (anode and cathode), but yet to maintain them connected. So that the chemical reaction would not stop.
Now having a general idea about all the parts of a lithium-ion battery, let’s log in to the main article which is, indicating the perfect material for producing a lithium-ion battery.
Anode Best Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
There is a range of materials used to manufacture the anode of a lithium-ion battery such as lithium, graphite, lithium-alloying materials, intermetallic, and silicon. Lithium can be simply pointed out as a perfect anode material but can cause problems with cyclic behavior. Graphite anodes can be considered as the most utilized anodic material since it has a very low price and is available enough. However, its poor theoretical capacity (372mAh/g) is of special concern. Alloy and intermetallic anodes however have high capacities, but can have mighty volume change that results a less lifespan.
Cathode Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
Generally used materials as the cathode part of a lithium-ion battery are, the oxides of lithium-metal (such as LiCoO2, LiMnO4), vanadium oxides, olivine, and rechargeable lithium oxides. Lithium-metal oxides encompassing cobalt and nickel are the most common selected materials but due to the scarce amount of cobalt in nature and its toxic characteristic, it may have some drawbacks. Manganese offers a low-cost alternative with a high thermal threshold, but has some limited cycling behaviors. Vanadium oxides show large capacity and the best kinetics. However, due to lithium insertion and extraction, it may have cyclic limitations.
Electrolyte Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
Selecting an adequate electrolyte material becomes very significant, due to the matter that it should be able to withstand the battery existing voltage and high temperatures. Well-known electrolyte materials can be categorized as liquid, polymer and solid state electrolytes. Liquid electrolytes are generally organic and solvent based. Flammability is their most common consideration. Polymer electrolytes are usually mixed in composites with ceramic nanoparticles, causing higher conductivity. Solid electrolytes are lithium-ion crystals and ceramic glasses. their exclusive criterion is that they eliminate the need of separators and risk of thermal runaway.
Separator Materials for a Lithium-ion Battery
Separators are either considered to be synthesized in sheets and assembled with electrodes, or deposited onto one electrode. For liquid electrolyte materials, the separator can be a foam material which is soaked with electrolytes and holds it in place. However, separators for solid and some polymer electrolytes are not required.
During above article, range of lithium-ion battery materials were discussed and their well-known characteristics were analyzed briefly.
- The most perfect material for the anode part of a lithium-ion battery can be suggested as graphite powder, due to the fact, that graphite anodes can overcome the voltage requirements of generally used cathode, are economic, light and may not result any aging troubles relative to other anode materials.
- To get the best cathode material, normally the mixture of cobalt, nickel and manganese or lithium cobalt oxides are often used to combine the best properties and to meet all requirements.
- Ionic liquid-based electrolytes can simply be suggested by many manufacturers for a lithium-ion battery as the most efficient, reliable and safe electrolytes. However, Solid electrolytes may also be considered, since they reduce the separator cost of the battery.
- Polyethylene and polypropylene are the most common used separator materials, which present high performance and excellent safety considerations.
Limitations of Lithium-ion Battery
Lithium-ion, the fastest growing battery chemistry, is of special interest for almost every energy consumer. Its high energy density, high depth of discharge, perfect cell voltage (3.6v), low maintenance, (approximately half self-discharge rate comparing to all other batteries), and excellent life cycle, are all a lithium-ion’s battery exclusive and fantastic specifications, that make lithium-ion battery the most sufficient and practical technology in battery manufacturing market.
despite all its interesting and advantageous characteristics, a lithium-ion battery does gain some limitations and drawbacks. Which can sometimes be of a special concern for the users. below are some of the limitations and disadvantages of a lithium-ion battery.
Requires an Extra Protection Circuit
A protection circuit is generally required into each pack to maintain safe operation during its charge and discharge period. The main task of a protection circuit is to safeguard the battery from reaching its peak voltage during charging process, and from dropping to a too low voltage during discharging process. And by doing this, the cell temperature is also controlled to a state with no hazard of maximum temperature state.
Aging is another frequent concern of a lithium-ion battery. However, many of the lithium-ion battery manufacturers do not reveal a complete enough explanation of this matter, but one can easily notice that a lithium-ion battery does lose its efficiency after 2-3 years. Thus if stored in a cool place and used at a regular 40% depth of discharge, the battery can even reduce its aging affect. Consequently, a matter of profit is that this is still a healthy life cycle in contrast to other battery chemistries.
High Purchasing Cost
high purchasing cost of a lithium-ion battery is another barrier toward its validity in many RV, EV, fishing boat, E bike and solar energy storage systems. A lithium-ion battery costs 40% higher than a nickel-cadmium battery, hundreds or even thousands of dollars high than lead-acid ($121/kwh*100*6 for a lead-acid battery and $605/kwh*50*1, initial cost for a lithium-ion battery). In addition, this can be the case of every battery cost while compared to lithium-ion battery. However, the payback period of lithium-ion battery can be cost effective compared to almost any type of batter technology.
Danger of Explosion
Lithium-ion battery, which is rapidly making its place in transportation and energy storage systems world-wide, can create some safety concerns such as, fire and explosion hazards. The lithium-ion cells can undergo the thermal runaway in some events and can result of an explosion. This explosion may cause from the releasing of flammable gases inside the confined battery cells and can damage the whole battery or even a valuable object or human being near it. It is important to notice that these gases can result from chemical reactions inside the cell, from over state of charge and other parameters.
The Manufacturing Process of a Lithium-ion Battery
A lithium-ion battery is manufactured through different processes and of many materials. And they can be categorized in three steps such as electrode manufacturing, cell assembly and cell finishing. One of its most significant parts anode, is made of lithium cobalt oxide (having extremely high cycling properties at high voltages), a crystalized carbon as the cathode and organic solvent, optimized for the specialty carbon as the electrolyte. But the procedures and processes steps for manufacturing a lithium-ion battery can be summarized as follows.
For producing electrodes of a lithium-ion battery, the manufacturers proceed through a number of processes and steps. Thus Some of lasting much time and some passes rapidly. The complete manufacturing process is as follow.
- Cast a slurry onto a metallic current collector, containing some active material, conductive carbon and a binder.
- the binder generally polyvinylidene fluoride, is used to pre-dissolve in the solvent part of the electrolytes. The solvent can usually be N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
- The mixing process continues for a while and during the process, the binder flows around and coat the active material and carbon particles.
- The resulting slurry is then cast onto the current collector and after drying it, the process ends. Hence, the drying process may take a long period of time, assisted with an extra ordinary evaporating system. It can take 12-24 hours at 120° C for the electrodes to dry completely.
The electrode of a lithium-ion battery can also be manufactured by spray painting techniques. During the spray painting technique, some specific NMP based paints are used to spray each component of electrode onto the desired surface. The spray painting technique still requires an evaporating system to dry the electrodes at higher temperatures.
Filling electrolytes falls in the cell assembly step of battery manufacturing process. Electrolytes, most commonly of three types are, liquid, polymer and solid state electrolytes. In which, every type with the materials used, has particular advantages and limitations. But whether type of the electrolyte is chosen can be filled to the battery after the cathode-anode step is done.
- The electrolytes are filled into the battery after the electrode is manufactured.
- While filling the electrolyte into the battery cell, a high-precision dosing needle is used to cast it into the battery cell.
- The electrolytes should be filled in a manner that can wet the electrodes and separator. Which can be one of the most gradual step in battery production.
All the other parts such as insulators, seals and safety devices attachment fall into the battery finishing step, which is carried out after the two crucial steps and the battery is charged fully for testing.